Vaccine developers globally are scrambling to work out how to ship and store their vials, some of which must be kept in specialised freezers at extremely low temperatures.
The logistical challenge was brought into sharp focus after promising interim trial data for the vaccine developed by BioNTech and Pfizer, a major breakthrough in the race to curb the pandemic.
This vaccine needs to be shipped and stored at minus 70 degrees Celsius, equivalent to an Antarctic winter, posing a challenge for even the most sophisticated hospitals in the United States.
It also puts it out of reach for the moment for many poor countries.
Transportation is a pressing issue for Russia, which has many extremely remote settlements and has already begun rolling out a programme of mass inoculation of frontline medical workers across the country, though human trials of Sputnik V are not yet complete.
Whether being trucked across Siberia or flown to the far reaches of the Arctic, its vials must be stored at minus 18 degrees Celsius or below, according to the Gamaleya Institute which developed the shot.
But Russia has also been testing a version that has undergone lyophilisation, turning the liquid vaccine into a dry, white mass that can be stored at normal fridge temperatures of 2 to 8 degrees Celsius (35.6-46.4°F). It is then diluted before injection.
Russia has not previously disclosed how many doses of freeze-dried vaccine it is planning to produce. But Kirill Dmitriev, head of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), which is backing and marketing the vaccine, told Reuters it would soon be the main focus.
“We expect that, starting roughly from February, we will switch mainly to the lyophilised form,” he said. “A large proportion of doses, if not a majority, will be specifically in this form.
“We have conducted trials that confirm that the immune response to the lyophilised form is the same as to the standard form of the vaccine.”
Interim results for the vaccine in liquid form showed the shot to be 92% effective.
Lead scientist at the Gamaleya Institute, Alexander Gintsburg, said in an interview with Reuters earlier this year that freeze-drying was not yet a primary focus, as lyophilisate is more expensive and takes longer to produce.
However, Dmitriev said that the process was not significantly more expensive, and that the main limitation is the time needed to acquire additional equipment.
Russia plans to produce around 2 million doses of Sputnik V this year, ramping up to 15 million per month by the spring.
Contracts seen by Reuters in the state tender register show that the Gamaleya Institute placed an order for materials from laboratory supplier Dia-M to be used for packaging 2.9 million doses of the shot in liquid form, and 720,000 doses freeze-dried. The order must be fulfilled by Dec. 21.
The health ministry, which supervises the Gamaleya Institute, did not comment on the contracts. Dia-M also did not respond to a request for comment.
Freeze-drying, if applied widely, could give Russia an