January 16, 2021


A highly toxic chemical used in the production of millions of tires every year is killing salmon in the Pacific Northwest, and it is being detected in streams across Northern California, a new study finds.

Scientists have known for decades that stormwater runoff from roads, highways and other urban areas has been linked to high rates of coho salmon deaths in Washington state, where as many as 90% of salmon in the Puget Sound area have died before they could spawn.

The new study published in the research journal Science on Thursday has identified a culprit chemical for the first time — a commonly used preservative called 6PPD used to give tires longer life.

“I think the broader impact is as we have already found this in San Francisco (Bay) creek water as well as the road runoff,” said the study’s lead author, Zhenyu Tian, a researcher at the University of Washington Tacoma. “We believe this thing is a prevalent contaminant. Wherever you have a busy highway, you have runoff from there and you probably will detect it. Our detection rate for this chemical in runoff is almost always 100%. For coho salmon, it’s definitely a threat.”

As part of the study, stormwater running into four Bay Area waterways and creeks tested positive for deadly concentrations of the toxin known as 6PPD-quinone. The creeks that tested for high toxicity included Rodeo Creek in Contra Costa County, Elmhurst Creek near Oakland and two locations near Coyote Creek near San Jose.

As tiny pieces of tire break off on roads and highways, the preservative 6PPD interacts with ground-level ozone to create 6PPD-quinone, which in turn washes into creeks and rivers when it rains, according to the study. The study led by the University of Washington and Washington State University found the toxin was highly deadly, killing some young coho salmon in just four hours when exposed to it.

Estimated to have once numbered in the hundreds of thousands, coho salmon numbers in California have been devastated since the mid-20th century by human development, damming, habitat loss and changing climate and ocean conditions. Coho have been federally listed as an endangered species and are at risk of extinction on the Central California coast, where only 1% of the historic population remains.

State agencies and environmental groups have been working for decades to restore coho salmon populations between Santa Cruz County and the California-Oregon border, including remaining coho strongholds on Lagunitas Creek, in San Mateo and further north in the Klamath and Eel rivers.

The discovery of the toxin could help to inform further recovery efforts throughout the state, researchers said.

“Here in the tributaries that discharge into San Francisco Bay, we no longer have coho,” said Rebecca Sutton, a study co-author and senior scientist with the San Francisco Bay Estuary Institute, which tested Bay Area stormwater as part of the research. “But up north we still have coho and we want those populations to thrive. So removing stressors like this particular chemical could


When officials in Seattle spent millions of dollars restoring the creeks along Puget Sound — tending to the vegetation, making the stream beds less muddy, building better homes for fish — they were thrilled to see coho salmon reappear.

a man standing next to a river: From left, researchers Jen McIntyre, Edward Kolodziej and Zhenyu Tian study the stormwater impacts on coho salmon in Longfellow Creek in the Seattle area. (Mark Stone / University of Washington)

© Provided by The LA Times
From left, researchers Jen McIntyre, Edward Kolodziej and Zhenyu Tian study the stormwater impacts on coho salmon in Longfellow Creek in the Seattle area. (Mark Stone / University of Washington)

But when it rained, more than half, sometimes all, of the coho in a creek would suffer a sudden death.

These mysterious die-offs — an alarming phenomenon that has been reported from Northern California to British Columbia — have stumped biologists and toxicologists for decades. Numerous tests ruled out pesticides, disease and other possible causes, such as hot temperatures and low dissolved oxygen.

Now, after 20 years of investigation, researchers in Washington state, San Francisco and Los Angeles say they have found the culprit: a very poisonous yet little-known chemical related to a preservative used in car tires.

This chemical is just one of a vast number of contaminants that washes off roads whenever it rains. This giant soup of pollutants, which includes trillions of microplastics, rushes down drains and into creeks and ultimately into the sea.

“We pretty much figured out that anywhere there’s a road and people are driving their car, little bits of tire end up coming off your tire and end up in the stormwater that flows off that road,” said Ed Kolodziej, an environmental engineer and chemist at the University of Washington (Tacoma/Seattle), whose lab led a study that was published Thursday in the journal Science. “We were able to get all the way down to this one highly toxic chemical — something that kills large fish quickly and we think is probably found on every single busy road in the world.”

Coho salmon, also known as silver salmon, are prized among fishermen and an important indicator species — the canary in the coal mine for coastal watersheds along the northern Pacific Ocean. Their range has historically stretched from the creeks nestled in the redwood forests near Santa Cruz all the way north to the waters of Alaska. The few coho populations that still exist in California are either endangered or threatened.

The fish are born in freshwater streams, where they stay for about a year before making the long journey through rivers and estuaries and into the ocean. They return a year and a half later to lay and fertilize eggs before dying. Many obstacles have made this journey across different environments more difficult: Shrinking estuaries, blocked passages from dams and culverts, as well as drought and a changing climate.

“While we often monitor temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, much more could be done to test for toxicity,” said Mariska Obedzinski, a California Sea Grant fisheries biologist who leads monitoring and salmon recovery research on the Russian River and was shocked to see the findings out of Puget


Pollution from car tires that washes into waterways is helping cause a mass die-off of salmon on the US west coast, researchers have found.

a fish swimming under water: Photograph: NOAA/Alamy

© Provided by The Guardian
Photograph: NOAA/Alamy

In recent years, scientists have realized half or more of the coho salmon, also known as silver salmon, returning to streams in Washington state were dying before spawning. The salmon, which reach 2ft in length, are born in freshwater streams before making an epic journey out to sea where they live most of their adult lives. A small number then return to their original streams to lay eggs before dying.

a fish swimming under water: Coho salmon, which can grow to 2ft in length, spend their lives in the ocean but return to the US Pacific coast to spawn.

© Photograph: NOAA/Alamy
Coho salmon, which can grow to 2ft in length, spend their lives in the ocean but return to the US Pacific coast to spawn.

Related: Fears for a million livelihoods in Kenya and Tanzania as Mara River fish die out

The cause of the die-off has remained a mystery but a new study, published in Science, has seemingly found a culprit. When it rains, stormwater carries fragments of old car tires into nearby creeks and streams. The tires contain certain chemicals that prevent them breaking down but also prove deadly to the coho salmon.

“The salmon would be inexplicably dead, which is tragic because this beautiful wild animal should be culminating its life and then it’s suddenly dead,” said Jenifer McIntyre, an assistant professor of aquatic toxicology at Washington State University. “The more we look, the more we find it. In some years all of the fish we find dead did not spawn.”

Samples taken from urban streams around Puget Sound, near Seattle, and subsequent laboratory work identified a substance called 6PPD, which is used as a preservative for car tires, as the toxic chemical responsible for killing the salmon. It’s currently unclear how it kills the fish but McIntyre said it was likely to be an “acute cardio-respiratory problem”.

The finding suggests that fish and other creatures elsewhere in the US and around the world are also at risk from the car tire chemical. Animals are being “exposed to this giant chemical soup and we don’t know what many of the chemicals in it even are”, said co-author Edward Kolodziej, an associate professor at the University of Washington.

“Here we started with a mix of 2,000 chemicals and were able to get all the way down to this one highly toxic chemical, something that kills large fish quickly and we think is probably found on every single busy road in the world,” Kolodziej added.

The nature of the threat facing coho salmon has been unclear since the fish were first seen “rolling” down streams, unable to swim upright, in the 1990s, McIntyre said. In an undisturbed riparian area it would be extremely rare for a coho salmon to die before laying its eggs but a growing sprawl of roads, cars and buildings near waterways has coincided with a surge in pre-spawning deaths. A reduction in 6PPD use or buffers to prevent the flow of


ORANGE — Police are investigating a carjacking after a man reported his vehicle taken while he was filling up his tires.

Officers responded to Cumberland Farms at 151 Boston Post Road around 10:30 a.m. Saturday for a report of a carjacking.

The victim told police he was filling the tires on the passenger side of his Audi when he saw a gray Mazda pull up next to his vehicle. The passenger in the Mazda got out of the vehicle and started to get into the man’s Audi, the victim told police.

“When the victim confronted the suspect, he observed that he was holding a small black object, possibly a handgun,” police said, adding that the victim told officers the suspect used the object to wave the victim to back away.

The suspect got into the Audi and drove out of the lot onto Boston Post Road, followed by the Mazda.

The victim’s vehicle was described as a white 2013 Audi Q7 with Connecticut plates 315PJO.

The Mazda was described as a four-door sedan with a partial Connecticut registration of AF10. The suspect was described as a Black man, 5-foot-10, about 30 years old and wearing a black jacket and black ski mask.

Anyone with information is asked to call 203-891-2130, reference case number 20-38868.

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DUBLIN, Oct. 28, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — The “Global Bicycle Tires Market Size, Market Share, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Growth Trends, Key Players, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts, 2020 To 2028” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering.

The report offers strategic insights into the global bicycle tires market along with the market size and estimates for the duration 2018 to 2028. The said research study covers in-depth analysis of multiple market segments based on product type, application, and cross-sectional study across different geographies and sub-geographies.

The study covers the comparative analysis of different segments for the years 2019 & 2028. The report also provides a prolific view on market dynamics such as market drivers, restraints, and opportunities. In addition, the report covers a section providing production and pricing trends in some of the major markets.

On account of lower costs and ease of installation, the tubed bicycle tires have experienced higher adoption over the years. However, rising demand for more durability and usability has led to the increasing adoption of tubeless and airless (solid) tires across the world. Based on applications, the overall bicycle tires market has been segmented into on-road and all-terrain applications.

The on-road bicycle tires segment comprises various sleek and precision tires that enable higher acceleration and manoeuvrability over blacktop roads and tracks. The all-terrain tires segment comprises various wider tires with deeper threads that offer enhanced grip and durability over the uneven and rough surface making them highly popular for adventure sports and off-road applications.

The bicycle tires market has been majorly driven by increasing users of bicycles in recent years. Various factors such as environmental concerns, health, and fitness, among others have compelled pedestrians to make use of bicycles for their regular commute. Thereby, the market has witnessed an increasing demand for new bicycles for various applications such as regular on-road use, off-road biking, and sports.

As a result, the bicycle tire market has been witnessing an increased demand for various types of on-road and off-road tires. Moreover, with ongoing product innovation in the tubeless and airless tires segments, the market is expected to witness significant growth during the forecast period.

In order to help strategic decision-makers, the report also includes competitive profiling of the leading providers of bicycle tires, market positioning, and key developments.

In 2019, the overall bicycle tires market is led by the tubed tires segment. The segment contributed to nearly 70% of the total market revenue in 2019. A tubed tire is the oldest design of bicycle tires and hence enjoys a prolonged presence in the market. Over the years, tubed tires have been adopted by numerous leading bicycle manufacturers on account of their ease of installation and low cost to the assembler. Thereby, the segment is projected to remain dominant in the market throughout the forecast period.

On the other hand, the tubeless tires segment is estimated to portray the highest growth rate in the following years. These tires offer puncture resistance and are more durable as compared to tubed


If your driving report is poor, chances are you’ll discover it subsequent to impossible to hire a automotive. They know your spouse’s name, your youngsters’s names and where they go to high school, what your dream automotive is, how long you’ve got had your present car, what your last automotive was, why you offered it, what other automobiles you own and what your favorite snack is out of the merchandising machine!

The difference between attended time and work time is ‘lost time’, which is also called non-productive time – the few hours every week that technicians are paid for when they don’t seem to be engaged on paying jobs. Service Equipments: A car needs to be serviced on occasion to make sure its proper running.

Think about, for instance, that a car producer’s commonplace time for a serious service is two hours and also you quote the client on this basis. When you measure attended time and work time, and add up offered time at the end of the day, you may then see how fast and how long your productives have labored in the course of the day.

But then lost time, if it’s measured at all, is often about the most obvious elements resembling rectification of defective work, collection and supply of cars, and cleaning and upkeep. For a start, productives could be in the workshop for eight hours day by day, however they do not work on paying jobs for eight solid hours.

The most basic approach of measuring time in a workshop is through the use of a ‘clock’ which stamps time on a ‘clock card’ for attended time and on the job card for work time. Apart from criminals, automobiles at repossessed car auctions come from folks didn’t pay the mortgage, defaulted on tax payments, etc.…


Often, you’ll hear concerning the thickness of tyres when it has to do with sports cars or off street autos. There is not any money to be made in previous time auto retailers that shouldn’t have the gear or software it must properly handle the big quantities of customer and car knowledge that come in. This productive software makes it to easy for nearly any shop to thrive and earn revenue within the busy world.

Upon getting ascertained the bodily features of your new used Volkswagen, it’s time to examine the internal mechanisms, first, get down on the ground and examine underneath the car for any fluids which may be leaking – this could point out a possible expensive restore drawback depending on what it is. Subsequent, pop the hood.

When you call and say your automobile is making a humorous noise that sounds sort of like a ‘whirring and clicking’ sound, usually a longtime impartial restore shop can hone in quickly on the potential suspect; presumably saving you cash on both diagnostic and long-time period restore payments.

Essentially the most basic means of measuring time in a workshop is by using a ‘clock’ which stamps time on a ‘clock card’ for attended time and on the job card for work time. Aside from criminals, cars at repossessed automobile auctions come from individuals failed to pay the mortgage, defaulted on tax payments, and so on.

Often this means transferring the car physically around the bodyshop, which is much much less efficient than the straight in a bay, job executed and straight out state of affairs of a service workshop. These are how automobiles reach the first or second flooring of a showroom or how the repairs to the lower part of vehicles are carried out in a mechanic’s store.…


Nowadays, if anyone drives a posh automobile, it would not necessarily imply that the person is rich – the luxury vehicle may need been bought at one of many numerous seized automobile auctions held recurrently. They enable the person to elevate up the automobile for the purpose of fixing tires or performing some emergency repairs on the vehicle. It is no marvel that auto retailers are one of the greatest patrons of the brand new software accessible right now.

Now none of that is necessarily solely a ok motive to offer what you are promoting to the native guy, but in at present’s quick-paced world there is a slowly simmering development towards shifting again to personalised service with an extra contact.

Productive efficiency tells you how briskly productives are working compared to standard instances, or the estimate in the case of a physique restore job – how many offered hours they produced compared to the work time it took them to supply these bought hours.

To suppose in any other case could be to subscribe to the theories that (1) regardless that you suppose a dealership might make 1,000,000 dollars, the store is worth zero blue sky as a result of it made no cash final 12 months; and (2) if a retailer has been making $5 million per 12 months it’s best to pay say three times $5 million as blue sky though you suppose you’ll not produce that form of revenue.

(eg Ford Transit) Payload The maximum load weight a van can carry – e.g. a payload of 900kg Product The rate, and different rental situations, which is utilized to a reservation and rental. Bike tires with vast rears don’t work the identical with cars that have them.…


Usually occasions, motorcycles are operating on narrow tires which do not run on flat surfaces. Despite this, and regardless of will increase in fuel prices, people are tending to rent larger automobiles and minivans. The dealership’s area of geographic gross sales and repair duty is vital both with respect to surrounding sellers, and with respect as to whether or not the manufacturing facility intends to close an open store, or open a brand new retailer.

Probably the most primary approach of measuring time in a workshop is by using a ‘clock’ which stamps time on a ‘clock card’ for attended time and on the job card for work time. Apart from criminals, vehicles at repossessed vehicle auctions come from folks did not pay the mortgage, defaulted on tax funds, and so on.

It is also the automotive service supervisor’s duty to stay on prime of warranties and recollects offered by the manufacture. Bought time – this is the time that you simply charge clients for. Automotive leases will set you again, on average $forty three.fifty five per day, with the best rates occurring in Boston ($62).

Until you will have a gifted person already on staff who’s keen and capable of fully deck out the rest of your dealership’s exterior and interior, hire a decorator to come and achieve this. Show potential prospects your dealership is in the vacation spirit and make your present ground irresistible with holiday cheer.

• Consciousness and responsibility – The individuals who have prior DUI convictions could also be embarrassed by having to drive around with the device within the automobile, so maybe they’ll be an affidavit to different drivers. Automotive fuses are used to protect the wiring and electrical tools for automobiles.…