January 27, 2021

Study

Pollution from car tires that washes into waterways is helping cause a mass die-off of salmon on the US west coast, researchers have found.



a fish swimming under water: Photograph: NOAA/Alamy


© Provided by The Guardian
Photograph: NOAA/Alamy

In recent years, scientists have realized half or more of the coho salmon, also known as silver salmon, returning to streams in Washington state were dying before spawning. The salmon, which reach 2ft in length, are born in freshwater streams before making an epic journey out to sea where they live most of their adult lives. A small number then return to their original streams to lay eggs before dying.



a fish swimming under water: Coho salmon, which can grow to 2ft in length, spend their lives in the ocean but return to the US Pacific coast to spawn.


© Photograph: NOAA/Alamy
Coho salmon, which can grow to 2ft in length, spend their lives in the ocean but return to the US Pacific coast to spawn.

Related: Fears for a million livelihoods in Kenya and Tanzania as Mara River fish die out

The cause of the die-off has remained a mystery but a new study, published in Science, has seemingly found a culprit. When it rains, stormwater carries fragments of old car tires into nearby creeks and streams. The tires contain certain chemicals that prevent them breaking down but also prove deadly to the coho salmon.

“The salmon would be inexplicably dead, which is tragic because this beautiful wild animal should be culminating its life and then it’s suddenly dead,” said Jenifer McIntyre, an assistant professor of aquatic toxicology at Washington State University. “The more we look, the more we find it. In some years all of the fish we find dead did not spawn.”

Samples taken from urban streams around Puget Sound, near Seattle, and subsequent laboratory work identified a substance called 6PPD, which is used as a preservative for car tires, as the toxic chemical responsible for killing the salmon. It’s currently unclear how it kills the fish but McIntyre said it was likely to be an “acute cardio-respiratory problem”.

The finding suggests that fish and other creatures elsewhere in the US and around the world are also at risk from the car tire chemical. Animals are being “exposed to this giant chemical soup and we don’t know what many of the chemicals in it even are”, said co-author Edward Kolodziej, an associate professor at the University of Washington.

“Here we started with a mix of 2,000 chemicals and were able to get all the way down to this one highly toxic chemical, something that kills large fish quickly and we think is probably found on every single busy road in the world,” Kolodziej added.

The nature of the threat facing coho salmon has been unclear since the fish were first seen “rolling” down streams, unable to swim upright, in the 1990s, McIntyre said. In an undisturbed riparian area it would be extremely rare for a coho salmon to die before laying its eggs but a growing sprawl of roads, cars and buildings near waterways has coincided with a surge in pre-spawning deaths. A reduction in 6PPD use or buffers to prevent the flow of

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Aston Martin is at the centre of a climate lobbying controversy after a study co-commissioned by the company that cast doubt on the green credentials of electric vehicles was found to have been attributed to a PR company registered to the wife of a director at the luxury carmaker.



a blue car parked in a parking lot: Photograph: Rebecca Naden/Reuters


© Provided by The Guardian
Photograph: Rebecca Naden/Reuters

The study, which has since been widely debunked by experts, was presented as “groundbreaking” third-party research and appeared to show that electric cars would have to travel as far as 50,000 miles before matching the carbon footprint of a petrol model.

Thursday’s report was commissioned by companies including Aston Martin, Bosch, Honda and McLaren shortly after the UK prime minister, Boris Johnson, called for a ban on the sale of new fossil fuel vehicles from 2030, and presented as the work of Clarendon Communications.

But it can be revealed that the same companies that commissioned the study collaborated to write the report themselves, and the communications firm is a company registered under the name of Rebecca Stephen, who is the wife of Aston Martin’s government affairs director, James Stephen. The company was set up in February, and registered to the address of a property jointly owned by the married couple.



a blue car parked in a parking lot: Aston Martin, which co-commissioned the study, does not manufacture any electric vehicles.


© Photograph: Rebecca Naden/Reuters
Aston Martin, which co-commissioned the study, does not manufacture any electric vehicles.

The study was first reported in the Times, before the Daily Mail and the Daily Telegraph, among other news publications, followed suit.

Rebecca Stephen, a part-time NHS nurse, told the Guardian via email that the report attributed to Clarendon was “compiled” by the same companies that commissioned the study. She added that Clarendon was contracted by Bosch “to provide public affairs and stakeholder support” so its logo and contact details appear on the back of the report “for this purpose”.

A spokeswoman for Bosch said the company fully supports the report “which has been drawn from independent, referenced data”, and called for “greater transparency” on the carbon footprint of vehicles.

Concerns over the report were first raised by Michael Liebreich, the founder of Bloomberg’s clean energy research arm BNEF, in a Twitter thread which has become known within the industry as “Astongate”.

“We need to have a proper discussion about how we are going to get to net zero,” he said. “What we can’t have is the auto industry and fossil fuel incumbents twisting the discussion to their own advantage using sockpuppet PR companies and underhand tactics. The time for that is over.”

Independent experts including Auke Hoekstra, an authority on the emissions of electric vehicles (EVs), have refuted the findings of the report and warned that the data presented may have overstated the carbon footprint of EVs threefold by failing to account for a number of factors within the data.

Francis Ingham, the director general of the Public Relations and Communications Association, said: “We have a duty to fight misinformation, not purvey it. PR agencies should be fully transparent about who they represent. Failure to disclose

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The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Dec 01, 2020 (CDN Newswire via Comtex) —
Global Automotive Fuel Tank Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025 published on MarketQuest.biz offers an extremely intelligent and deep assessment of the present market condition along with the overall market size, share, and dynamics estimated from 2020 to 2025. The report showcases a comprehensive analysis of the leading business programs, future market, and business-oriented planning. The report sheds light on changing market scenarios and initial and future assessments of the global Automotive Fuel Tank market. It investigates desirable factors related to market situations such as growth rates, demands, and differentiable business-oriented strategies used by the market manufacturers with respect to distinct tactics and the futuristic prospects in brief.

The report then covers gives a detailed overview of global Automotive Fuel Tank industry prime vendors and regional evaluation with forecast period 2020 to 2025. The research focuses on primary and secondary drivers, market share, leading segments, and regional analysis. It also delivers the market competitive landscape and an elementary inspection of the regional growth of the market. It also provides analysis pertaining to the global market trends, growth, as well as major collaborations, merger & acquisitions along with upcoming and trending innovation. The report comprises the assessment of cost and pricing operating in the specific geographies. Graphs are used to support the data format for a clear understanding of facts and figures.

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NOTE: Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers post COVID-19 crisis. The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.

Companies profiled and studied for this market report include: Inergy, Futaba, Yachiyo, Kautex, FTS, TI Automotive, Sakamoto, Magna Steyr, Hwashin, SKH Metal, YAPP, Chengdu Lingchuan, Donghee, Yangzhou Changyun, Jiangsu Suguang, Martinrea, Tokyo Radiator, Wuhu Shunrong, Luzhou North, AAPICO, Jiangsu Hongxin, Changchun Fuel Tank, Jiangling Huaxiang, Wanxiang Tongda, Anhui Xincheng

The report further provides the new and existing players in the global Automotive Fuel Tank market with information such as company profiles, facts and figures, product pictures and specifications, sales, market share, and contact information. It covers segments such as competitor segment, product type segment, end use/application segment, and geography segment. The report utilizes a series of analytical tools including Porter’s five forces analysis, SWOT analysis, feasibility study as well as the survey of the investment return.

Market segmentation, on the basis of types: Metal Fuel Tank, Plastic Fuel Tank

Market segmentation, on the basis of applications: Commercial Vehicles, Passenger Vehicles

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, global Automotive Fuel Tank market share and growth rate, historic and forecast (2015-2025) of the following regions are covered: North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.), Middle East

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  • Nearly 80% of Canadians feel safest travelling by car
  • 51% of Canadians intend to or would consider purchasing and EV to reduce their carbon footprint
  • Common EV misconceptions revealed

MISSISSAUGA, Ontario, Nov. 25, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) —  COVID-19 lockdowns have disrupted what was once considered ‘normal,’ challenging Canadians to adjust their daily lives, rethink travel, and reconsider how to make a positive environmental difference. To determine Canadians’ electric intrigue, Kia Canada commissioned Canadian pollster Angus Reid1 to conduct a recent survey to gauge transportation habits, EV knowledge and misconceptions to help educate consumers on how easy making the switch to EV can be.

The findings show that since the pandemic began, 79% of Canadians say they feel safest travelling by car and 38% are more conscious of their life choices and impact on the environment. In fact, over half the population say they intend to or would consider purchasing an EV for their next vehicle to reduce their carbon footprint.

Collective Green Consciousness
Consumer appetite for sustainable living is growing in popularity and since 2015, Kia Canada has placed over 8,000 EV vehicles on the road and has recorded triple digit year-over-year increases in the past 3 years, showing that many Canadians are increasingly more aware of their environmental choices and looking to engage in green consumerism to better the planet. However, survey findings reveal that 82% of Canadians have never driven an EV before. To understand why this could be, Kia identified common misconceptions that act as EV barriers to help arm Canadians with the facts they need to gain EV confidence.

Tune-Up on EV Facts and Common Misconceptions
The national survey revealed that when it comes to EVs, Canadians were hesitant to make the switch due to four key concerns: charging station availability, the time it takes to charge, vehicle range and the higher cost of EVs.

A strong believer in consumer education, Kia Canada, which offers the largest green car line-up among mainstream automotive manufacturers, understands that EV education comes with experience and is determined to clear up Canadians’ myths and misconceptions about going the distance safely, economically and environmentally in a clean-driving EV.

Myth #1: EV Charging Station Availability
Every day brings new adventure with multiple pitstops along the way. From running daily errands to dropping the kids off at school or hockey practice, Canadians rely on their vehicles to support their busy schedules, no problem.

Here’s where the myth about recharging comes in: 47% of Canadians say they would not consider purchasing an EV and among this group 50% believe finding a charging station is a nuisance, and 30% don’t think they can install a charging port in their home.

And here’s where fact versus fiction comes into play: ChargeHub, Canada’s leading charging station app, says there are more than 14,000 public charging ports (Level 2 and 3) available across Canada, making it easy for drivers everywhere to access charging on-demand – whether its at their local grocery store, service station, or restaurant.

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The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Nov 16, 2020 (CDN Newswire via Comtex) —
The recently distributed report entitled Global Automotive Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2026 is well crafted using a combo of significant data related to the market. The report comprises a point by point knowledge about key aspects related to the global Automotive Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) market such as product scope, market revenue, opportunities, growth rate, sales volumes, and figures. The report tracks the new technological advancements and new releases to assist clients in preparing their future-based prospective services and products as well as create profitable business decisions. The report consolidates market variations, feature assessment, cost structure, capability, movement, and measuring of business.

Growth Essentials:

The growth of the market is driven by key factors such as manufacturing activity, market situation and demand, risks of the market, new trends, and new technologies and their implementation. The report provides an understanding of the global Automotive Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) market landscape, important industry trends, market size, and market share estimates, and how to position-specific brands in the best way. The overall growth of the market has been forecasted for the years 2020-2026, taking into account the previous growth patterns, the growth drivers, and the current and future trends.

DOWNLOAD FREE SAMPLE REPORT:https://www.marketsandresearch.biz/sample-request/50098

NOTE: Our report highlights the major issues and hazards that companies might come across due to the unprecedented outbreak of COVID-19.

Another ultimate goal of global Automotive Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) market research is to analyze how the market’s target group will obtain a product or service. The market research report is prepared following certain methodologies and guidelines for collecting, organizing, and analyzing data. Different segment type and application segments analysis is provided. The report talks about the major trends and developments taking place in the market.

In the global market, the following companies are covered: Baoshan Iron & Steel Co. Ltd, ArcelorMittal SA, Tata Steel Limited, Kobe Steel Ltd., POSCO, SSAB AB, ThyssenKrupp AG, United Steel Corporation, AK Steel Holding Corporation,

On the premise of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share, and growth rate of every kind, primarily split into: Dual Phase Steel, Martensitic Steel, Boron Steel, TRIP Steel, Others

On the premise of the top users/applications, this report focuses on the standing and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share, and growth rate for every application, including: Passenger Cars, Commercial Vehicles

Market segment by regions/countries, this report covers: North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

ACCESS FULL REPORT:https://www.marketsandresearch.biz/report/50098/global-automotive-advanced-high-strength-steel-ahss-market-2020-by-manufacturers-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to-2026

What Will You Get From The Report:

  • A complete analysis of the global Automotive Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) market
  • Different alterations in market
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Vehicle theft rates in San Antonio are among the highest in the nation, according to a study from AutoinsuranceEZ.com.

The insurance referral service ranked the Alamo City as the 13th worst in its study released last month. The report compared metro areas with more than a million residents and analyzed each area’s change in the number of thefts and change in the percentage of thefts from 2017 to 2019.

During that time frame, 25,082 cars were stolen in Bexar County and vehicle theft in San Antonio increased by 10 percent, according to the study.

READ ALSO: Study: San Antonio home prices have increased twice as fast as local wages

The city had an annual rate of 333 vehicles stolen per 100,000 residents between 2017 and 2019, the study reports. AutoinsuranceEZ.com noted the theft typically happens around interstates after 9 p.m. The biggest break-in day is Sunday, in the hours after midnight.

Portland, Oregon is ranked as the worst city for vehicle theft rate, averaging 487 stolen cars per 100,000 residents annually between 2017 and 2019. The number of thefts for Portland, however, dropped 14 percent from 2017 to 2019.

San Antonio was the only Texas city on the list. However, researchers for the study only included cities that had data available during the report’s timeframe. For example, Denver, which had the highest theft rate overall of that group, was eliminated because there was only one year of data available. Houston and Dallas also had data missing, but both had more than 22,000 vehicle thefts in 2018, according to the study’s chart.

The data came from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Report and the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey.

The study also noted Hondas and pickup trucks are among the top vehicles stolen in the U.S. For more information on the report, visit autoinsuranceez.com.

Priscilla Aguirre is a general assignment reporter for MySA.com | [email protected] | @CillaAguirre

Source Article

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The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Nov 11, 2020 (Market Insight Reports) —
Selbyville, Delaware The research report on ‘ Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market’ now available with Market Study Report, LLC, offers a detailed analysis of the factors influencing the global business sphere. This report also provides precise information pertaining to market size, commercialization aspects and revenue estimation of this business. The report further elucidates the status of leading industry players thriving in the competitive spectrum of the ‘ Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market’.

Market Overview

The Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level market size, segmentation market growth, market share, competitive Landscape, sales analysis, impact of domestic and global market players, value chain optimization, trade regulations, recent developments, opportunities analysis, strategic market growth analysis, product launches, area marketplace expanding, and technological innovations.

The global Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market size is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025, with a CAGR of 6.7%% in the forecast period of 2020 to 2025 and will expected to reach USD 8546.3 million by 2025, from USD 6593.8 million in 2019.

Request a sample Report of Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) Market at: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/request-a-sample/2796503?utm_source=Marketwatch.com&utm_medium=Ram

The Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market report is basically an all-exhaustive analysis of this industry that includes information about the product scope, market size, sales and revenue, and vital market dynamics. Essentially, market dynamics here comprises the opportunities that Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market has to offer, the risks that the industry is presently characterized by, and the major drivers influencing this business space.

The competitive spectrum of Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market is inclusive of some of the most renowned companies of today, along the likes of NXP Semiconductors, Analog Devices, Infineon Technologies, Renesas Electronics, Cypress Semiconductors, Microchip Technology, Toshiba, Texas Instruments, STMicroelectronics and Silicon Laboratories. The report enumerates, in excruciating detail, entire manufacturer base of this market, including the competitive profile of each of the manufacturers partaking in this business, some basic information regarding the company, and an overview of the firm with respect to its current position and reach in the market. Further, the report comprises the products manufactured by the company, while analyzing the product portfolio in terms of suitable industry parameters such as sales volume and applications.

Further information about the manufacturers includes the product price, revenue amassed by the firm, gross margins, and the overall share accrued by the company in Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market. Details regarding the stance of the manufacturer when compared to its rivals, and a spate of other information along the likes of market competition trends and the market concentration rate, which includes the specifics about the top few players of the Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market are also outlined in the report.

The Automotive Microcontrollers (MCU) market study enumerates the geographical spectrum of the industry in appreciable detail. Traversing the belts of North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. it basically

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The bicycle tire market is poised to grow by USD 542.7 million during 2020-2024, progressing at a CAGR of over 3% during the forecast period.

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201110005739/en/

Technavio has announced its latest market research report titled Global Bicycle Tire Market 2020-2024 (Graphic: Business Wire)

Worried about your business amidst COVID-19? Here is an exclusive report talking about market scenarios, estimates, impact of lockdown, and customer behavior. To get a FREE sample PDF report in your inbox, click here!

The report on the bicycle tire market provides a holistic update, market size and forecast, trends, growth drivers, and challenges, as well as vendor analysis.

The report offers an up-to-date analysis regarding the current global market scenario, the latest trends and drivers, and the overall market environment. The market is driven by increasing demand for premium bicycles.

The bicycle tire market analysis includes application segment and geography landscape. This study identifies the growing bicycle market due to urbanization and increasing fuel prices as one of the prime reasons driving the bicycle tire market growth during the next few years.

This report presents a detailed picture of the market by the way of study, synthesis, and summation of data from multiple sources by an analysis of key parameters.

The bicycle tire market covers the following areas:

Bicycle Tire Market Sizing

Bicycle Tire Market Forecast

Bicycle Tire Market Analysis

Companies Mentioned

  • Alta Cycling Group

  • Cheng Shin Rubber Ind. Co. Ltd.

  • Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH

  • Donnelly Cycling

  • Hermann Hartje KG

  • Hwa Fong Rubber Ind. Co. Ltd.

  • Michelin Group

  • Rene Herse Cycles

  • The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

  • Trek Bicycle Corp.

     

Key Topics Covered:

Executive Summary

Market Landscape

  • Market ecosystem

  • Value chain analysis

Market Sizing

Five Forces Analysis

Market Segmentation by Application

  • Market segments

  • Comparison by Application placement

  • Manual bicycles – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • E-bikes – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • Market opportunity by Application

Customer landscape

Geographic Landscape

  • Geographic segmentation

  • Geographic comparison

  • APAC – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • Europe – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • North America – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • South America – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • MEA – Market size and forecast 2019-2024

  • Key leading countries

  • Market opportunity by geography

Drivers, Challenges, and Trends

  • Market drivers

  • Volume driver – Demand led growth

  • Volume driver – Supply led growth

  • Volume driver – External factors

  • Volume driver – Demand shift in adjacent markets

  • Price driver – Inflation

  • Price driver – Shift from lower to higher-priced units

  • Market challenges

  • Market trends

Vendor Landscape

  • Overview

  • Landscape disruption

Vendor Analysis

  • Vendors covered

  • Market positioning of vendors

  • Alta Cycling Group

  • Cheng Shin Rubber Ind. Co. Ltd.

  • Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH

  • Donnelly Cycling

  • Hermann Hartje KG

  • Hwa Fong Rubber Ind. Co. Ltd.

  • Michelin Group

  • Rene Herse Cycles

  • The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

  • Trek Bicycle Corp.

Appendix

About Us

Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. Their research and analysis focuses on emerging market trends and provides actionable insights to

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About the MPO

The Danville Area Transportation Study MPO leads in the development of the region’s long-range transportation plan and short-range transportation improvement program through a partnership among the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration, Illinois DOT, local elected leadership, local planning and urban services employees, the business community, and citizens across the Danville region. 

Our Mission

The Danville Area Transportation Study MPO is committed to providing leadership to the region in the planning, funding, and development of a regional multi-modal transportation system; one that promotes personal and social economic prosperity while encouraging sustainable growth and development practices to protect and preserve valuable community and natural assets.  

Our Committees

The Danville Area Transportation Study is comprised of two committees, the Technical Committee and the Policy Committee.

​The DATS committees include representatives from: the City of Danville, the City of Georgetown, the Village of Belgium, the Village of Westville, the Village of Catlin, Catlin Township, Danville Township, Newell Township, Georgetown Township, Vermilion County, Danville Mass Transit, CRIS, Vermilion Regional Airport, and the Illinois Department of Transportation.

Our Guiding Documents

NEWS & NOTES
UPDATES OF LOCAL, STATE & FEDERAL NEWS

Danville Metropolitan Bicycle Map

Picture

​Click here to find out more about the new Danville Metropolitan Bicycle Map.


Source Article

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Bicycle Materials Case Study

                                   

 

Author:                                                Andrew
Cantrell

 

Project Advisor:                                 Professor
Tom Stoebe

 

Project Group Members:                  Firdaus
Khan

Ryan Oakes

Jeread Sines

 

Table of Contents:                             Summary

Bicycle Materials Case Study        

Application Requirements

Possible Materials

Physical
Principles

Material Selection

                                                            Conclusion & Future Prospects

                                                            Acknowledgements

                                                            References

                                   

Date Written:                                     June 12, 2003

 

Bicycle Materials Index:                    Back to Bicycle Materials main page

 

This
senior project is an educational case study on the material science of bicycle
wheels, frame, components and helmets.
The idea of this bicycle material
selection case study is to increase the knowledge of the reader of the case
study, as well as the author. We will involve physical aspects of materials
(structure, properties, etc.), by educational literature survey, discussions,
application analysis, and material selection. This core study will be done in a
general way by completing three informative tables. One table will present
material properties requirements for the selected materials commonly used for bicycle wheels, frame, components and helmet.
Table two will display these common possible materials to be used, in reference
to their application (i.e. alloy—frame, foam—helmet, etc). The third table will
select the best material for said bicycle application. The material selection
will be determined and focused on a cost effective standard touring road
bicycle (mid-level) built for the intermediate to advanced road cyclist. Our
overall key features will be weight and cost for this mid-level bicycle
application. The factor of cost in our discussion will only briefly be examined
due to additional manufacturing, design, and material processing costs. The
cyclist profile will be exercise minded road bicycle commuters. The correlative
material/application processes and materials selection will then be discussed
and displayed with conclusions and future prospects. All information presented
will be understandable for non- technical audiences.

 

Topic

Educational case study on
the material science used to in a present day bicycle wheels, frame, components
and helmet.

 

Goal

My goal for this term project is
improve my ability to investigate a materials science case study and
engineering problem by using my background in physical materials principles.

 

Objective

The objective of this bicycle
case study is to apply as well as increase my knowledge in applications of
material science, and to present that information to the reader of the case
study.

 

Approach

This Bicycle
case study will involve physical aspects of materials (structure, properties,
etc.), by educational literature survey, discussions, analysis, and preparation
of a report.

 

Methodology

The majority of the research
will be done by preexisting educational literature on material properties and
structures. This core study will be done in a general way by completing three
informative tables. One table will present material properties requirements for
the selected materials commonly used for bicycle
wheels, frame, components and helmet
. Table two will display these
common possible materials to be used, in reference to their application (i.e.
alloy—frame, foam—helmet, etc). The third table will show the best chose
material selection for said bicycle component application. This materials
selection will then be discussed and displayed and the correlative
material/application processes will

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