Vehicle History Reports

Last Modified: March 25, 2020 by Jeff Ostroff | Originally Published April 25, 2007

If you are in the market for a used car, you must get a Vehicle History Report AND have the car inspected by a certified mechanic on a lift. Do not buy a used car without these two very important pieces of information. Making an educated decision on a used car purchase can save you thousands of dollars. Don’t make a huge mistake. You have been warned!

1. Why You Need a Vehicle History Report

  • It gives you a window into the car’s past.
  • According to the US Government roughly a half million cars are sold with fraudulent odometer readings annually, costing used car buyers over a billion dollars. Our research indicates many more go unreported!
  • The Office of Odometer Fraud Investigations has reported a sharp increase in odometer fraud. Elevated used car prices coupled with a tight supply of low-mileage used cars, has made odometer fraud more profitable than ever.
  • Natural disasters such as Super Storm Sandy damaged over a quarter million cars! Many of these cars get cleaned up, rebuilt and put back on the market.

2. What is In a Vehicle History Report

A used car history report contains vehicle records including data from state DMV’s, auto auctions, manufacturers, car dealers, police reported accidents and repair shops. A history report may reveal more about that used car than the seller is willing to tell you.

AutoCheck clean

An AutoCheck Report can reveal:

  • Number of previous owners, when it was sold & what states it was sold in.
  • Total loss, flooded, rebuilt wreck & salvage titles
  • Accident data including airbag deployment
  • Potential odometer rollback fraud
  • Year, make, model, engine, location of manufacture and installed equipment
  • Check if the car has been turned in under the “Lemon Law”
  • Exclusive valuable auto auction data
  • Indication if vehicle has been certified used, leased, rental, fleet or government vehicle

To get a better feel for what is contained in a report, click here to view a sample report. You’ll be able to go through all of the sections and see how all of the valuable information is presented.

3. Beware of “Free” Vehicle History Reports

Don’t be fooled by empty reports that just give you generic data on a VIN. Some sites out there ask you a bunch of questions to make it seem like they need information to give you a complete report. Don’t be tricked by this tactic! A real history report doesn’t need to know what state you are in.

Some sites out there will really try to make you think they are gathering information by having spinning wheels and status bars waste a bunch of time. These displays are just an illusion. Any legitimate report will be pulled in seconds from information in a database.

No free report will give you the information that you really need. They might give you a lot of information in a slick format but it is not the important information

Planes, Trains and Automobiles: The History of Transportation

Planes, Trains and Automobiles:

Before every other form of transportation, humans traveled on foot. Can you imagine walking from New York City to Los Angeles? Fortunately, human beings learned to use animals such as donkeys, horses and camels for transportation from 4000 BC to 3000 BC. In 3500 BC, the wheel was invented in Iraq and the first wheel was made from wood. Initially, a canoe-like structure was used for water transportation, which was built by burning logs and digging out the burned wood. In 3100BC, the sailing boat was invented by Egyptians while the Romans built roads across Europe. During the Industrial Revolution, the first modern highway was developed by John Loudon McAdam.

In the 17th and 18th century, many new modes of transportation were invented such as bicycles, trains, motor cars, trucks, airplanes, and trams. In 1906, the first car was developed with an internal combustion engine. Many types of transportation systems such as boats, trains, airplanes, and automobiles were based on the internal combustion engine.

The three leading automobile companies in the US in the 1920s were General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. Furthermore, several styles of automobiles were produced such as the two doors, small, large, sports cars, and luxury cars. Presently, the latest car models have integrated improved standardization, computer aided systems, and platform sharing. The modern railroad system uses remote control for traffic lights and movement of traffic, capable of speeds of more than 570 km/hr.

History of Airplanes

The Wright Brothers were the first to develop a sustained and powered aircraft in 1902. Earlier, an unmanned helicopter powered by a steam engine was developed in 1877 by Enrico Forlanini. Later, bomber aircrafts such as Lancaster and B-29 were designed, and the first commercial jet airline was flown by British pilot De Havilland Comet. Today, commercial aircrafts can fly at the speed of 960 km/hr, transporting people at a lower cost in less time. Currently, unmanned remote controlled aircraft such as Global Hawk is used in military operations.

History of Trains

Trains are connected vehicles which run on rails. They are powered by steam, electricity or diesel. The steam engine is mostly fueled by coal, wood or oil. The first steam powered engine to be used in trains was introduced by James Watt, a Scottish inventor. The first rail transportation was used to move coal from mines to rivers.

The modern rail system was developed in England in 1820, progressing to steam locomotives. In 1825, Stockton and Darlington Railways opened and underground railway was first built in 1863 in London. In 1880, electric trains and the trams were developed. Today, most of the steam locomotives have been replaced by diesel. The fastest commercial High Speed Rail trains which use magnetic levitation technology can go up to 431 km/hr.

History of Automobiles

Automobiles based on internal combustion engine were first patented by Jean Lenoir of France in 1860. The first gasoline powered automobile was developed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz in 1885. Modern

What Does a Vehicle History Report Tell You?

A crucial step in any used car purchase is getting a vehicle history report. It’s like a window into the car’s past, providing a wealth of material so you can make an informed decision about whether to buy the vehicle and how much you should pay for it. They’re often referred to as Carfax reports, though Carfax.com is just one provider, joined by AutoCheck.com and other sources in providing vehicle history reports. AutoCheck is a division of credit reporting bureau Experian.

Vehicle history reports provide details about a car’s ownership, accident history, title status, mileage, and more. You’ll just need to know the car’s vehicle identification number (VIN) to get started. This guide will walk you through all of the different types of information you can find in a report on a vehicle’s history, including:

 

How Do I Get a Vehicle History Report?

Many dealers offer free Carfax reports for the cars they have on their lots. If you want to buy a single report from AutoCheck or Carfax, you can expect to pay between $25 and $40. Both companies offer quantity discounts if you need to check out more vehicles. Other vehicle history report providers offer various levels of information, and some do so at lower prices than the market leaders Carfax and Autocheck. Some lenders will also provide customers with a vehicle history report, as it is in their best interest to ensure that any vehicle they are financing is sufficient collateral for the loan.

Sellers of used cars can benefit from purchasing a vehicle history report on their own vehicle and providing a copy to potential buyers. Not only will it save buyers money, but it’s a sign of good faith that you’re not trying to hide anything about the car’s history.

To get a vehicle history report, you simply fill out an online form and provide the VIN, which is found in the lower corner of the windshield on the driver’s side in most cars. If you are looking at a report from a dealer or a seller, take a look at the car’s VIN to ensure it matches the number on the report.

What’s in a Vehicle History Report?

There are volumes of useful vehicle information in a Carfax or AutoCheck report. Some of it can confirm good news about the vehicle you’re considering, while other information can raise red flags. Not every piece of negative information is necessarily a deal-breaker – some can even help you negotiate a better purchase price.

In the next several sections, we’ll explore what is, and is not, in a Carfax, AutoCheck, or other history report.

Has the Car Been in Any Accidents?

One of the more vital things a vehicle history report can tell you is the vehicle’s accident history. Carfax and other history report providers gather data from state motor vehicle departments (DMVs), insurance companies, collision repair shops, and law enforcement agencies to build a list of serious collisions a car has been in. In many cases,

Free VIN Check and Vehicle History Report. Find Accident History & More

How To Get a Vehicle History Report

A vehicle history report (or VIN check) is an invaluable tool if you are planning on buying or selling a vehicle. As a buyer, you can use a vehicle history report to give you peace of mind that the vehicle you are thinking of purchasing is in good condition. On the other hand, if you are selling a vehicle then a clean history report can help entice potential buyers.

vehicle history report

How to Obtain a Vehicle History Report

You can obtain both free and paid VIN lookups. Free vehicle records will typically include less information than paid ones, but they may be sufficient depending on what information you need. The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB) offers a free VinCheck. As with a complete vehicle history report, you will need to provide your Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) when using VinCheck. You can also only make up to five searches within a 24-hour period and certain vehicle records may take up to six months to be updated with VinCheck.

Alternatively, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) offers a more limited history report. The NHTSA’s search tool is useful mainly if you want to see if your vehicle or any of its parts have been recalled.

Third-party databases, including SearchQuarry.com, also offer both free and paid VIN lookups. The paid records offered through third-party companies tend to be the most complete. The National Motor Vehicle Title Information System provides a list of approved providers of vehicle information and history data. Note that some approved providers will only provide records to car dealers and not directly to consumers.

What is Included in a Vehicle History Report

Not all vehicle history reports will include the same information, but in general you can expect your VIN report to include some or all of the following:

  • Accident history
  • Previous owners
  • Liens held against the vehicle
  • Recalls
  • Flood damage
  • Title checks
  • History of airbag deployments
  • Maintenance record
  • Problems with the odometer
  • Records of theft

Note that not all VIN checks will include the same type of information. A record from the NICB, for example, is designed to prevent the exchange of stolen vehicles, so it’s great if you want to make sure that the car in question wasn’t reported stolen. On the other hand, it won’t include much information about that vehicle’s maintenance history.

Vehicle Records from the DMV

Most DMV’s don’t provide vehicle history records. However, many do provide vehicle registration and title abstracts, which contain much of the same information that you would find in a history report. In New York, for example, the registration abstract includes some useful history information, such as parking fines and insurance lapses. A title record abstract, meanwhile, will include information about previous owners of the vehicle.

License Plate and VIN Search

In many cases, looking up a car’s VIN is simply about peace of mind. Every car built after 1980 has its own VIN, which is unique to that vehicle.

Bicycle History Timeline


 



 



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National Bicycle History Archive of America


Historical Sources / Museums / Exhibits
(Africa, America, Asia, England, Ireland, Europe)


Chronology of the Growth of Bicycling and the
Development of Bicycle Technology


by David Mozer


Note: Many people claim credit for inventing the first bicycle. 
The answer to the question often depends upon the nationality of who you
ask; the French claim it was a Frenchman, Scots claim a Scotsman, the English an
Englishman, and Americans often claim that it was
an American.  Since the early 1990’s the
International Cycling History
Conferences
, has worked to get
past the jingoism.  Our current understanding of the history of the bicycle
suggests that many people contributed ideas and developments:


Date      Development





1418 Giovanni Fontana, a fifteenth century Italian
physician and engineer, is credited with building the first human powered land vehicle
— it had four wheels and used an continuous rope, connected via gears to the
wheels. Images and more detailed description don’t seem to exist. Source: R.
John Way, The Bicycle – A Guide and Manual.
1493
Scetch of bicycle falsely attributed to Leonard da VinciOther
bicycle histories websites include a sketches showing a primitive version of a bicycle, purportedly
drawn by
Leonardo da Vinci,
that surfaced in 1974. Experts consider the sketches a hoax: Further
examination of the drawings indicates these are not in da Vinci’s hand. The speculation that these are a sketch by a
pupil after a lost drawing by da Vinci is also considered false. A test to
date the document
was performed, but the library in Milan (belonging to the Vatican) conceals
its negative outcome, see

http://www.cyclepublishing.com/history/leonardo%20da%20vinci%20bicycle.html
.
1791 Comte Mede de Sicrac is credited with building the “celerifer” –
purportedly a hobby horse
with two wheels instead of a rocker. Nothing else is known about Mede de Sicrac,
not even when he was born or died. This is probably because he never lived. This is now considered a
patriotic hoax created by Baudry de Saunier, a French historian in 1891.  It was debunked
by a French researcher in 1976.  In fact, a Jean Sievrac
(!) of Marseille obtained an import price for a four-wheeled horse drawn coach
called celerifer in 1817.  See

http://www.answers.com/Q/Who_is_comte_mede_de_sivrac
1817
Hobby HorseVariously
called the running machine, velocipede, Draisienne and dandy horse, it was invented by Karl Drais, in response to
widespread starvation and the slaughtering of horses, the consequence of a crop

How bicycle is made – material, manufacture, history, used, components, dimensions, machine, History

Background

Bicycles are one of the world’s most popular modes of
transportation, with some 800 million bicycles outnumbering cars by two to
one. Bicycles are also the most energy-efficient vehicle—a cyclist
burns about 35 calories per mile (22 calories per km), while an automobile
burns 1,860 calories per mile (1,156 calories per km). Bicycles are used
not only for transportation, but for fitness, competition, and touring as
well. They come in myriad shapes and styles, including racing bikes,
all-terrain bikes, and stationary bicycles, as well as unicycles,
tricycles, and tandems.

History

As far back as 1490, Leonardo da Vinci had envisioned a machine remarkably
similar to the modern bicycle. Unfortunately, da Vinci did not attempt to
build the vehicle, nor were his sketches discovered until the 1960s. In
the late 1700s a Frenchman named Comte de Sivrac invented the Celerifere,
a crude wooden hobby horse made of two wheels and joined by a beam. The
rider would sit atop the beam and propel the contraption by pushing his or
her feet against the ground.

In 1816 the German Baron Karl von Drais devised a steerable hobby horse,
and within a few years, hobby-horse riding was a fashionable pastime in
Europe. Riders also discovered that they could ride the device with their
feet off the ground without losing their balance. And so, in 1840, a
Scottish black-smith named Kirkpatrick Macmillan made a two-wheel device
that was operated by a treadle. Two years later he traveled as many as 40
miles (64 km) at a stretch during a record 140-mile (225 km) round trip to
Glasgow. A couple decades later, a Frenchman, Ernest Michaux, designed a
hobby horse that utilized cranks and rotating pedals connected to the
front axle. The Velocipede, made with wooden wheels and an


iron


frame and tires, won the nickname of the “boneshaker.”

The 1860s proved to be an important decade for bicycle improvements with
the inventions of ball-bearing hubs, metal-spoked wheels, solid rubber
tires, and a lever-operated, four-speed gearshift. Around 1866 an unusual
version of the Velocipede was created in England by James Stanley. It was
called the Ordinary, or Penny Farthing, and it had a large front wheel and
a small rear wheel. The Ordinaries were soon exported to the U.S. where a
company began to manufacture them as well. These bicycles weighed a hefty
70 pounds (32 kg) and cost $300—a substantial sum at the time.

By 1885, another Englishman, John Kemp Starley, created the Rover Safety,
so called since it was safer than the Ordinary which tended to cartwheel
the rider over the large front wheel at abrupt stops. The Safety had
equally sized wheels made of solid rubber, a chain-driven rear wheel, and
diamond-shaped frame. Other important developments in the 1800s included
the use of John Boyd Dunlop’s pneumatic tires, which had air-filled
inner tubes that provided shock absorption. Coaster brakes were developed
in 1898, and shortly thereafter freewheeling made biking easier by
allowing the wheels to continue to spin without pedaling.

The frame consists of the front and rear triangles, the front really forming more of a quadrilateral of four tubes: the top, seat, down, and head tubes. The rear triangle consists of the chainstays, seatstays, and rear wheel dropouts. Attached to the head tube at the front of the frame are the fork and steering tube.

The

Science of Cycling: A History of Bicycling Timeline

Timeline

1817 Baron von Drais invents the Draisine (also known as a Hobby Horse
or Swift-Walker), an improved celerifere than can be steered with handlebars.



 Draisine  Draisine


1839 Kirkpatrick MacMilan of Scotland adds cranks and treadmills
to the rear axle of a two-wheeled vehicle, but gains only local notoriety.


1858 Pedals are added to the front wheel of a two-wheeled machine,
creating a bone-jarring machine challed the velocipede or “boneshaker.”

 Velocipede  Velocipede

1868 Velocipedes are manufactured in the United States and velocipede
riding becomes a popular fad.

1869 Solid rubber tires replace iron velocipede tires and the
term “bicycle” is first used.


1872 The Ariel, the first high-wheel Ordinary, is manufactured
in Britian.


 Ordinary  Ordinary

1876 The Ordinary or high-wheeler is first displayed in America.

1877 First U.S.-made Ordinary manufactured.


1880 League of American Wheelmen is founded and begins lobbying
for better roads.


 


1884 Thomas Stevens pedals across the United States –from Oakland,
California, to Boston Massachusetts. J. K. Starley invents the “safety
bicycle.”


 Saftey Bicycle  Starley Saftey bicycle

1889 Pneumatic rubber tires invented.


1894 Fashion designers re-introduce the bloomer costume, freeing
women from the restrictive corsets and dress of the time.


1895 Chicago puts its mailmen on bicycles; the price of a good-quality
horse reaches a new low; four schoolmarms stir up controversy by wearing
bloomers to work.


1896 Margaret Valentine Le Long rides from Chicago to San Francisco;
coaster brakes are invented; Henry Ford builds his first succesful automobile.


Ford’s first automobile  Ford's Automobile


1898 Bicyles’ popularity in the United States declines.


1899 “Mile-a-Minute” Murphy sets a bicycle speed record
— one mile in 57.75 seconds.


1903 Bicycle mechanics Wilbur and Orville Wright fly 120 feet
in the first succesful airplane.


1962 New bicycle boom begins.


1972 Bicycles outsell cars in the United States –13 million to
11 million; bicycle thefts account for 17% of all larcenies in the U.S.


1973 Dr. Allan Abbott sets a bicycle speed record, reaching 138.674
mph on the Bonneville Salt Flats.


1975 First Internation Human Powered Speed Championships held.


1976 2,000 cyclists celebrate the Bicentennial by riding across
America.

1981 The Specialized Stumpjumper became the first mass-produced mountain
bikes. It helps popularize the sport.


1984 The road race becomes the first women’s cycling event at
the Olympics.


1985 John Howard of the US sets a new bicycle speed record of
152.284 mph. The first person to go over 150 miles an hour on a bicycle.


1995 Fred Rompelberg of the Netherlands sets a new bicycle speed
record of 166.9 mph. At the time, he was 50 years old, and the world’s
oldest professional cyclist.


1996 Mountain biking introduced as an Olympic sport.


 

Source Article

Bicycle History – Evolution of Cycling

Picture Of Old Bicycle

Bicycles and motorcycles are an integral part of our lives. They provide easy and cheap ways of public transportation for many billions of people all around the world. However, ease of transport was not always so widespread. Over past several centuries, many inventors worked hard on the production of various two-wheeled transport devices. This is the place where you will find out how they managed to produce such groundbreaking devices that are today strongly integrated into our society.

During the long history of public transportation, there was no greater moment than the discovery of bicycles. From the millennia’s of horseback riding to the global saturation of bicycle use, this section will try to track the origins of this groundbreaking device.

Origins of the bicycle can be traced to several very gifted scientists. Here you can found out about them, and their efforts to create easy to manufacture and easy to use traveling device that would change the face of public transport forever.

Every year about 50 million bicycles are produced. Today there are almost 400 million bicycles in China and about a billion bicycles in the world. Read more interesting facts about bicycles.

Over the last few hundred years, inventors from all around the world strived to create perfect bicycle types for all kinds of uses. Here you can get informed about all the most popular bicycle types that you can purchase today.

For millions of people around the world, bicycles represent not only the transportation vehicle but also a way of life. Read more if you are interested in history, types, and modern cycling.

Son of the Pierre Michaux, who brought us the first bicycle, was also credited as the inventor of the first motorcycle. This steam powered transport device soon became the focal point of the life works of several designers around the world, and in during the end of 19th century age of motorcycles truly begun.

Brief History

It all began in late 15th century with some simple drawings of Italian mastermind Leonardo da Vinci. His two-wheeled design perfectly described one-person velocipede (without pedals or chain transmission), that could have easily been made from then accessible materials. With working prototype never produced, bicycle remained unknown all up too early 19th century.

Picture Of Replica Of 1493 Caprotti Sketch

The Baron Karl von Drais made the basis for today’s bicycle in 1817 with his “Draisine” velocipede. After several years with moderate success in Europe, his designs received an upgrade in England with “Dandy Horse” design. That model caught the attention of French blacksmith Pierre Michaux and his partner Pierre Lallement in the early 1860s. Together with Michaux’s son Ernest, they managed to produce the first model of a bicycle with pedals. This marked the pivotal moment in bicycle history. From that point, all bicycle started spreading itself across Europe countries and across the Pacific to the United States. Bicycle soon received many improvements during the next few years – metal frames, pneumatic tires, safety brakes, ball bearings, chain transmission and coaster brakes. The most popular

100% Free Vehicle History | With Official Government Data!

VinCheck.info offers a 100% free vehicle history report. How to run a free VIN check, no credit card needed? To scan data from over 268 million registered cars in the US: 1) Enter a 17-digit VIN, 2) Click Check VIN.

VinCheck.Info’s vehicle history report covers a range of topics that buyer’s need. It includes vehicle description or specs, theft/accident/damage/sales records, warranty, and other information. VinCheck.info compiles data a network of government, non-government, and auto industry sources. Access our comprehensive database to get a full vehicle history report using our free VIN check. You can also quickly decode your VIN using our Free VIN decoder tool. Don’t have the VIN? No worries. Run our free license plate lookup tool to get the same full report.

Worried about the alarming increase of flooded cars for sale? Find out if a car has been damaged by flood using our free VIN Flood Check Tool.

Why Do I Need a Free Vehicle History Report?

VinCheck.info can help a used car buyer make an informed decision. We sift through tons of data to give you details you can use to evaluate any car:

  1.   Vehicle Specifications:
  • year of build
  • color
  • technical features
  • optional equipment installed, and more.

Compare and contrast the details provided to you by the seller with what the vehicle history report provides.

  1.    Safety Ratings: (IIHS test results)
  • crash-worthiness (how well does the vehicle protect its occupants in a crash)
  • crash avoidance and mitigation (available technology to  prevent a crash or lessen its severity)
  1.   Market Value: the estimated average value people are paying for the same car in your area.

This is a valuable tool for finding out the car’s worth to help you negotiate for a fair price.

4.   Fuel Efficiency: how far a car can travel on a specific amount of fuel.

This is important information at a time like this with unstable gas price and uncertain economy.  

5.    Warranty/Manufacturer Recall: warranty problems or recalls.

In most cases, dealerships offer recall repairs for free.

6.   Title Records:

  • Name of the state/city
  • Number of times the vehicle has been registered
  1.    Sales Records: listings of a vehicle for sale by a car dealership or a private party.

This information can help you find out the car’s price  in the previous sale.

8.   Lien Records: records of a claim to ownership of the vehicle by a finance company.

A lien on a vehicle means you have to pay the lien-holder first if you are going to buy it.

9.   Accident Records: minor and major accidents especially those covered by a police report.

  • Every year, the NHTSA reports close to six (6) million car accidents.
  • In 2016, fatal vehicle crashes led to 37,461 deaths.

Some cars sustain damages so extensive they become unsafe to ride. Make sure to buy a car with reliable and safe parts for the road.

10. Theft Records: reports of theft and theft recoveries from NICB (the federal crime bureau) and industry sources.

  • In

History of the Bicycle

A modern bicycle by definition is a rider-powered vehicle with two wheels in tandem, powered by the rider turning pedals connected to the rear wheel by a chain, and having handlebars for steering and a saddle-like seat for the rider. With that definition in mind, let’s look at the history of early bicycles and the developments that led up to the modern bicycle.

Bicycle History in Debate

Up until a few years ago, most historians felt that Pierre and Ernest Michaux, the French father and son team of carriage-makers, invented the first bicycle during the 1860s. Historians now disagree since there is evidence that the bicycle and bicycle like vehicles are older than that. Historians do agree that Ernest Michaux did invent a bicycle with pedal and rotary cranks in 1861. However, they disagree if Michaux made the very first bike with pedals.

Another fallacy in bicycle history is that Leonardo DaVinci sketched a design for a very modern looking bicycle in 1490. This has been proven to be untrue.

The Celerifere

The celerifere was an early bicycle precursor invented in 1790 by Frenchmen Comte Mede de Sivrac. It had no steering and no pedals but the celerifere did at least look somewhat like a bicycle. However, it had four wheels instead of two, and a seat. A rider would power forward by using their feet for a walking/running push-off and then glide on the celerifere.

The Steerable Laufmaschine

German Baron Karl Drais von Sauerbronn invented an improved two-wheel version of the celerifere, called the laufmaschine, a German word for “running machine.” The steerable laufmaschine was made entirely of wood and had no pedals. Hence, a rider would need to push his or her feet against the ground to make the machine go forward. Drais’ vehicle was first exhibited in Paris on April 6, 1818.

Velocipede

The laufmaschine was renamed the velocipede (Latin for fast foot) by French photographer and inventor Nicephore Niepce and soon became the popular name for all the bicycle-like inventions of the 1800s. Today, the term is used mainly to describe the various forerunners of the monowheel, the unicycle, the bicycle, the dicycle, the tricycle and the quadracycle developed between 1817 and 1880.

Mechanically Propelled

In 1839, Scottish inventor Kirkpatrick Macmillan devised a system of driving levers and pedals for velocipedes that allowed the rider to propel the machine with feet lifted off the ground. However, historians are now debating if Macmillan actually did invent the first pedaled velocipede, or whether it was just propaganda by British writers to discredit the following French version of events.

The first really popular and commercially successful velocipede design was invented by French blacksmith, Ernest Michaux in 1863. A simpler and more elegant solution than the Macmillan bicycle, Michaux’s design included rotary cranks and pedals mounted to the front wheel hub. In 1868, Michaux founded Michaux et Cie (Michaux and company), the first company to manufacture velocipedes with pedals commercially. 

Penny Farthing

The Penny Farthing is also referred to as