November 25, 2020

Day: November 3, 2020

Automotive design

The modern automobile is a complex technical system employing subsystems with specific design functions. Some of these consist of thousands of component parts that have evolved from breakthroughs in existing technology or from new technologies such as electronic computers, high-strength plastics, and new alloys of steel and nonferrous metals. Some subsystems have come about as a result of factors such as air pollution, safety legislation, and competition between manufacturers throughout the world.

Passenger cars have emerged as the primary means of family transportation, with an estimated 1.4 billion in operation worldwide. About one-quarter of these are in the United States, where more than three trillion miles (almost five trillion kilometres) are traveled each year. In recent years, Americans have been offered hundreds of different models, about half of them from foreign manufacturers. To capitalize on their proprietary technological advances, manufacturers introduce new designs ever more frequently. With some 70 million new units built each year worldwide, manufacturers have been able to split the market into many very small segments that nonetheless remain profitable.

New technical developments are recognized to be the key to successful competition. Research and development engineers and scientists have been employed by all automobile manufacturers and suppliers to improve the body, chassis, engine, drivetrain, control systems, safety systems, and emission-control systems.

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These outstanding technical advancements are not made without economic consequences. According to a study by Ward’s Communications Incorporated, the average cost for a new American car increased $4,700 (in terms of the value of the dollar in 2000) between 1980 and 2001 because of mandated safety and emission-control performance requirements (such as the addition of air bags and catalytic converters). New requirements continued to be implemented in subsequent years. The addition of computer technology was another factor driving up car prices, which increased by 29 percent between 2009 and 2019. This is in addition to the consumer costs associated with engineering improvements in fuel economy, which may be offset by reduced fuel purchases.

Vehicle design depends to a large extent on its intended use. Automobiles for off-road use must be durable, simple systems with high resistance to severe overloads and extremes in operating conditions. Conversely, products that are intended for high-speed, limited-access road systems require more passenger comfort options, increased engine performance, and optimized high-speed handling and vehicle stability. Stability depends principally on the distribution of weight between the front and rear wheels, the height of the centre of gravity and its position relative to the aerodynamic centre of pressure of the vehicle, suspension characteristics, and the selection of which wheels are used for propulsion. Weight distribution depends principally on the location and size of the engine. The common practice of front-mounted engines exploits the stability that is more readily achieved with this layout. The development of aluminum engines and new manufacturing processes has, however, made it possible


Heading to New York City? As you might be aware, there are several boroughs in this city, which is home to millions of people!

We teamed up with to help you navigate the large metropolis. Start off by checking out the many NYC hotel options on to decide where you want to put your feet up at night. Once you’ve figured out where you want to stay in New York, you’re going to need to know how to get around New York to all the sights you’ve come to the city to see.

Well, with our definitive guide, you’re going to learn all the different options you have for getting around New York. This will include all the major New York transport options, as well as tips for using each one.

Once you’ve read this, check out our guide to spending 2 days in New York, which has a detailed itinerary and lots of tips on what to see in the city. Now, let’s get started with our guide to getting around NYC.

How to Get around New York City

As you’ll see from this list you have a lot of options when it comes to getting around New York City. This is to be expected, after all, New York is the most populated city in the United States.

With over twenty million residents in the New York metropolitan area, which is spread across five main boroughs, it’s easy to see why there are so many ways to help them get around!

Here are some of the best ways to get around the city when you visit.

1. Taxi

The iconic yellow taxi is certainly a popular way to get around the city with residents and visitors alike. The yellow taxi is easy to recognise, being bright yellow, and having a yellow light on the roof. These yellow taxis are the only vehicles that are allowed to pick passengers up in response to a street hail across the entire city.

How to get around New York TransportHow to get around New York Transport

A taxi shows it’s availability by illuminating the yellow light. An illuminated light means the taxi is available for hire. To hail a taxi, you just need to attract the drivers attention, usually by waving from the street corner.

Once the taxi sees you, they will stop somewhere safe to pick you up. Let the driver know your destination address. Taxis are metered, with fares starting at $3, and then increasing as time and distance pass – you can see the fares here. Note that tolls will also be added to your taxi fare. New York taxi Fares can be paid in cash, or with a credit or debit card.

It’s definitely worth taking a taxi in New York just for the experience. It’s not a big expense, particularly for shorter rides.

There are of course alternatives to the yellow taxi, including ride-sharing services such as Uber and Lyft. These need to be booked in advance using their apps, and do generally work out cheaper than a yellow