Penal transportation – Wikipedia

Relocation of convicted criminals to a distant place

Women in England mourning their lovers who are soon to be transported to Botany Bay, 1792

Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentences were served, they generally did not have the resources to return home.

Origin and implementation[edit]

Banishment or forced exile from a polity or society has been used as a punishment since at least Ancient Roman times. The practice reached its height in the British Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries.[1]

Transportation removed the offender from society, mostly permanently, but was seen as more merciful than capital punishment. This method was used for criminals, debtors, military prisoners, and political prisoners.[citation needed]

Penal transportation was also used as a method of colonization. For example, from the earliest days of English colonial schemes, new settlements beyond the seas were seen as a way to alleviate domestic social problems of criminals and the poor as well as to increase the colonial labour force,[1] for the overall benefit of the realm.[2]

Great Britain and the British Empire[edit]

Initially based on the royal prerogative of mercy,[3] and later under English Law, transportation was an alternative sentence imposed for a felony. It was typically imposed for offences for which death was deemed too severe. By 1670, as new felonies were defined, the option of being sentenced to transportation was allowed.[4][5] Forgery of a document, for example, was a capital crime until the 1820s, when the penalty was reduced to transportation. Depending on the crime, the sentence was imposed for life or for a set period of years. If imposed for a period of years, the offender was permitted to return home after serving his time, but had to make his own way back. Many offenders thus stayed in the colony as free persons, and might obtain employment as jailers or other servants of the penal colony.

England transported its convicts and political prisoners, as well as prisoners of war from Scotland and Ireland, to its overseas colonies in the Americas from the 1610s until early in the American Revolution in 1776, when transportation to America was temporarily suspended by the Criminal Law Act 1776 (16 Geo. 3 c. 43).[6] The practice was mandated in Scotland by an act of 1785, but was less used there than in England. Transportation on a large scale resumed with the departure of the First Fleet to Australia in 1787, and continued there until 1868.

Transportation was not used by Scotland before the Act of Union 1707; following union, the Transportation Act 1717 specifically excluded its use in Scotland.[7] Under the Transportation, etc. Act 1785 (25 Geo. 3 c. 46) the Parliament of Great Britain

Mode of transport – Wikipedia

The How and Why Library 019.jpg

Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish between different ways of transportation or transporting people or goods. The different modes of transport are air, water, and land transport, which includes Rails or railways, road and off-road transport. Other modes also exist, including pipelines, cable transport, and space transport. Human-powered transport and animal-powered transport are sometimes regarded as their own mode, but never fall into the other categories. In general, transportation is used for moving of people, animals, and other goods from one place to another. The means of transport, on the other hand, refers to the (motorized) vehicles necessary for transport according to the chosen mode (car, airplane, ship, truck and rail). Each mode of transport has a fundamentally different technological solution, and some require a separate environment. Each mode has its own infrastructure, vehicles, and operations.

Animal-powered[edit]

Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the transport of people and/or goods. Humans may use some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles.

A fixed-wing aircraft, typically airplane, is a heavier-than-air flying vehicle, in which the special geometry of the wings generates lift and then lifts the whole vehicle. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft. For short distances or in places without runways, helicopters can be operable.[1] (Other types of aircraft, like autogyros and airships, are not a significant portion of air transport.)

Air transport is the fastest method of transport, Commercial jets reach speeds of up to 955 kilometres per hour (593 mph) and a considerably higher ground speed if there is a jet stream tailwind, while piston-powered general aviation aircraft may reach up to 555 kilometres per hour (345 mph) or more. This celerity comes with higher cost and energy use,[2] and aviation’s impacts to the environment and particularly the global climate require consideration when comparing modes of transportation.[3] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates a commercial jet’s flight to have some 2-4 times the effect on the climate than if the same CO2 emissions were made at ground level, because of different atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing effects at the higher altitude.[4] U.S. airlines alone burned about 16.2 billion gallons of fuel during the twelve months between October 2013 and September 2014.[5] WHO estimates that globally as many as 500,000 people at a time are on planes.[2] The global trend has been for increasing numbers of people to travel by air, and individually to do so with increasing frequency and over longer distances, a dilemma that has the attention of climate scientists and other researchers,[6][7][8] the press,[9][10] and the World Wide Web.[11] The issue of impacts from frequent travel, particularly by air because of the long distances that are easily covered in one or a few days, is

Bicycle Race – Wikipedia

Bicycle Race” is a single by the British rock band Queen. It was released on their 1978 album Jazz and written by Queen’s lead singer Freddie Mercury. It was released as a double A-side single together with the song “Fat Bottomed Girls”. The song is notable for its video featuring a bicycle race with nude women at Wimbledon Stadium, which was controversial at the time, with the video being edited or even banned in several countries.

Composition[edit]

The song was written by Freddie Mercury and was inspired by watching the 18th stage of the 1978 Tour de France passing Montreux, where the band were recording Jazz in the Mountain Studios.[2][3] It starts with a chorus unaccompanied by instruments. The chorus is followed by two verses connected with a bridge, both followed by a chorus. Around the middle of the song is a solo played with numerous bicycle bells. The song has an unusual chord progression with numerous modulations, a change of metre (from 4
4
to 3
4
) in the bridge, and multitracked vocal and guitar harmonies.[4]

The lyrics are topical for the time and contain social, political, and pop culture references, such as religion, Vietnam War, Watergate, cocaine, fictional characters (Peter Pan, Frankenstein and Superman), actor John Wayne, and the films Jaws and Star Wars.

Brian May has said that the song was not an autobiographical portrait of Mercury and that Mercury did not particularly enjoy bicycling, also noting that despite the lyric “I don’t like Star Wars”, Mercury was a Star Wars fan.[5]

The song references the band’s song “Fat Bottomed Girls” with the lyric “fat bottomed girls, they’ll be riding today”. “Fat Bottomed Girls” reciprocates with the lyric: “Get on your bikes and ride!” The two songs were released together as a double A-sided single.

The video was famous for having 65 nude women, all professional models, racing at Wimbledon Greyhound Stadium. It was filmed by Denis de Vallance. The group rented the stadium and several dozen bicycles for one day for filming the scene; however, when the renting company became aware of the way their bikes were used, they requested that the group purchase all the bicycle seats.[2][6] The original video used special effects to hide the nudity.[7] However, due to the nudity, the video is age-restricted on YouTube and banned in several countries.

Distribution[edit]

The song was released as a single and is also included in the following albums and box sets: Queen, Bohemian Rhapsody, 15 Of The Best, Queen Live In Concert, Greatest Hits and The Singles Collection Volume 1.[8]

The single was mostly distributed in 1978, on 7-inch vinyl records, with “Fat Bottomed Girls” on the B-side and EMI record label. In Argentina, the titles were translated as “Carrera de Bicicletas” and “Chicas Gordas” respectively. The labels were changed to Pepita in Hungary and to Elektra

Vehicle identification number – Wikipedia

VIN visible in the windshield
VIN recorded on a Chinese vehicle license

A vehicle identification number (VIN) is a unique code, including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, as defined in ISO 3779 (content and structure) and ISO 4030 (location and attachment).

VINs were first used in 1954 in the United States.[1] From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats.

In 1954, at the request of the US government, the US auto manufacturers and the Automobile Manufacturers Association were involved in the creation of the new, standardized vehicle identification numbering system named the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) with an agreed upon digit sequence and concealed chassis markings of this VIN. Up to that time, states used the engine number to register and title cars and trucks which became a problem if the engine was replaced which was fairly common at the time.[citation needed]

In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format.[1] It required all on-road vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters O (o), I (i), and Q (q) (to avoid confusion with numerals 0, 1, and 9).

There are vehicle history services in several countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off.

Classification[edit]

There are at least four competing standards used to calculate the VIN.

  • FMVSS 115, Part 565: Used in United States and Canada[2]
  • ISO Standard 3779: Used in Europe and many other parts of the world
  • SAE J853: Very similar to the ISO standard
  • ADR 61/2 used in Australia, referring to ISO 3779 and 3780[3]

Components[edit]

Modern VINs are based on two related standards, originally issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1979 and 1980: ISO 3779[4] and ISO 3780,[5] respectively. Compatible but different implementations of these ISO standards have been adopted by the European Union and the United States, respectively.[6]

The VIN comprises the following sections:

World manufacturer identifier[edit]

The first three characters uniquely identify the manufacturer of the vehicle using the world manufacturer identifier or WMI code. A manufacturer who builds fewer than 1000 vehicles per year uses a 9 as the third digit, and the 12th, 13th and 14th position of the VIN for a second part of the identification. Some manufacturers use the third character as a code for a vehicle category (e.g., bus or truck), a division within a manufacturer, or both. For example, within 1G (assigned to General Motors in the United States), 1G1 represents Chevrolet passenger cars; 1G2, Pontiac passenger cars; and 1GC, Chevrolet trucks.

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) in the US assigns WMIs to countries and manufacturers.[8]

The first character of the WMI is the region

Motor vehicle – Wikipedia

The United States has the world’s highest rate of vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 832 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016.[1]
Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou’s main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumbering regular bicycles

A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails (such as trains or trams or 4-wheelers) and is used for the transportation of people or cargo.

The vehicle propulsion is provided by an engine or motor, usually an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, or some combination of the two, such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. For legal purpose, motor vehicles are often identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, buses, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks. These classifications vary according to the legal codes of each country. ISO 3833:1977 is the standard for road vehicle types, terms and definitions.[2] Generally, to avoid requiring handicapped persons from having to possess an operator’s license to use one, or requiring tags and insurance, powered wheelchairs will be specifically excluded by law from being considered motor vehicles.

As of 2011, there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world, excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment.[3][4][5] Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people.[5] China has the largest motor vehicle fleet in the world, with 322 million motor vehicles registered at the end of September 2018.[6] The United States has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 832 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016.[1] Also, China became the world’s largest new car market in 2009.[4][5][7] In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, with 18.4 million motor vehicles manufactured.[8]

Ownership trends[edit]

Motor vehicle ownership per 1000 inhabitants in 2014

The US publisher Ward’s estimates that as of 2010, there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world. This figure represents the number of cars, trucks (light, medium and heavy duty), and buses, but does not include off-road vehicles or heavy construction equipment. The world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the vehicle population doubled roughly every 10 years.[3][4][5] Two US researchers estimate that the world’s fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020, with cars representing at least 50% of all vehicles. China’s and India’s automobile fleets are expected to grow at an annual rate of around 7 or 8%, while the slowest growth is expected in the United States, with less than 1% a year, and Western Europe, with 1 to 2%.[3]Navigant Consulting forecasts that

Hybrid bicycle – Wikipedia

Hybrid bicycles blend characteristics from more specialized road bikes, touring bikes and mountain bikes.[1] The resulting “hybrid” is a general-purpose bike that can tolerate a wide range of riding conditions and applications. Their stability, comfort and ease of use make them popular with novice cyclists, casual riders, commuters, and children.

Hybrids typically borrow the flat, straight handlebars and upright seating posture of a mountain bike, which many bicyclists find comfortable and intuitive. Hybrids also employ the lighter weight, thinner wheels and smooth tires of road bikes, allowing for greater speed and less exertion when riding on the road. Hybrid bikes often have places to mount racks and bags for transporting belongings, much like a touring bike.

Hybrid bikes have spawned numerous sub-categories satisfying diverse ridership. They are classified by their design priorities, such as those optimized for comfort or fitness — and those offered as city, cross or commuter bikes.[2]

History[edit]

From the early 20th century until after World War II, the utility roadster constituted most adult bicycles sold in the United Kingdom and in many parts of the British Empire. In Britain, the roadster declined noticeably in popularity during the early 1970s, as a boom in recreational cycling caused manufacturers to concentrate on lightweight (23-30 lb.), affordable derailleur sport bikes, actually slightly-modified versions of the racing bicycle of the era. In the 1980s, U.K. cyclists began to shift from road-only bicycles to all-terrain models such as the mountain bike. The mountain bike’s sturdy frame and load-carrying ability gave it additional versatility as a utility bike, usurping the role previously filled by the roadster. By 1990, the roadster was almost dead; while annual U.K. bicycle sales reached an all-time record of 2.8 million, almost all of them were mountain and road/sport models. A different situation, however, was occurring in most Asian countries: roadsters are still widely made and used in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Vietnam and others as well in parts of north-western Europe.[citation needed]

Trekking bike[edit]

Lightweight trekking bike

A trekking bike is a hybrid with all the accessories necessary for bicycle touring – mudguards, pannier rack, lights etc.[3][4]

Cross bike[edit]

Cross bikes use a road bicycle frame similar to a racing or sport/touring bicycle, and are normally equipped with nearly flat handlebars to provide a more upright riding position than a racing or sport/touring bike.[2] As a hybrid bike intended for general recreational and utility use, the cross bike differs from the cyclo-cross bicycle, which is a racing bicycle purposely designed to compete in the sport of cyclo-cross competition. Cross bikes are fitted with 700c (ISO 622) wheels using somewhat wider semi-treaded tires (1.125–1.25 in or 28.6–31.8 mm) than those fitted to most racing or sport/touring models.[1]
The additional tire width and tread is intended to give the cross bike hybrid some ability to deal with rough or littered surfaces that might be encountered on paved or unpaved

Automotive design – Wikipedia

Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, coaches, and vans.

The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, however, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation[1] is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design.
Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design.

Design elements[edit]

The 2003 Bertone Birusa concept car on display at an International Car Show. In the Background are some concept sketches
Draft of OScar design proposal
A futuristic original sketch for the Ferrari Modulo 512-S concept car by Paul Martin in 1967. There are already many features of the final product, including the reduced height, wheels coved for low drag and the characteristic entry system.

The task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is also an aspect of automotive design; this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package.

The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry, particularly dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, and smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.

Exterior design[edit]

The design team(s) responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, shape, and surface details of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual sketches and digital drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, followed by digital rendering to images. Consumer feedback is generally sought at this point to help iteratively refine vehicle concepts according to the targeted market, and will continue throughout the rest of the design refinement process. After more progressive refinement, industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from and along with the drawings and images. The data from these models are then used to create quarter-scale and finally full-sized mock-ups of the final design. With three-

Fisker Automotive – Wikipedia

Fisker Automotive was an American company known for producing the Fisker Karma, which was one of the world’s first production luxury plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, and first deliveries were in 2011. Production of the Fisker Karma was suspended in November 2012 due to bankruptcy of its battery supplier A123 Systems,[9] with about 2,450 Karmas built since 2011 and over 2000 cars sold worldwide.[10] In February 2014, Fisker Automotive’s Karma vehicle design, tooling and a manufacturing facility in Delaware were purchased by Chinese auto parts conglomerate Wanxiang Group. Henrik Fisker, the founder of Fisker Automotive, retained the Fisker trademarks and the Fisker brand and launched a separate company, Fisker Inc., in 2016. Wanxiang later renamed its new company Karma Automotive.[11]

History[edit]

2007–2014[edit]

Henrik Fisker co-founded Fisker Automotive in 2007 with Fisker Coachbuild partner Bernhard Koehler and Quantum Technologies after securing U$5.2 Million investment from Gianfranco Pizzuto, an Italian businessman, and Palo Alto Investors. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, a venture capital firm, was one of the early investors. Fisker is responsible for designing many premium cars such as the Aston Martin DB9 and V8 Vantage, Artega GT, and BMW Z8. He also served as design director and sat on the board at Aston Martin.

Before Fisker Automotive, Fisker and Koehler left Aston Martin in 2005 to establish Fisker Coachbuild, in an attempt to revive the art of coach-building automobiles to customer specifications.[12] The Fisker Tramanto and Latigo used chassis and power trains from Mercedes-Benz SL and BMW 6 Series automobiles. Several were purchased, but the business soon gave way to Fisker Automotive, a true automobile manufacturer.

In 2009, Fisker mentioned plans for another plug-in hybrid, a “high-volume vehicle for a lower price”, subject to getting a U.S. Department of Energy loan[13] to build about 100,000 vehicles annually in the United States.[14]

On April 14, 2008, Tesla Motors filed a lawsuit against Fisker Automotive, alleging they stole Tesla’s technology and were using it to develop their own hybrid car, the Fisker Karma, which was announced at the North American International Auto Show in January 2008. Tesla’s suit claimed that the design work done for the Model S by Fisker Coachbuild was substandard, and that Fisker diverted its best ideas to the Karma.[15] In early 2009, the suit was settled in Fisker’s favor and Tesla was ordered to pay Fisker more than US$1.1 million in legal fees.[16][17]

Fisker received a US$528.7 million conditional loan in September 2009 from the Department of Energy’s US$25 billion Advanced Technologies Vehicle Manufacturing Loan Program (ATVM).[18][19] Of the total loan amount approved, a total of US$192 million was drawn by Fisker Automotive for engineering work with primarily US suppliers to complete the Fisker Karma and Fisker’s Project Nina, later revealed as the Fisker Atlantic.[20]

Vice President Joe Biden attended the October 27, 2009 announcement that Fisker Automotive would take control

Vehicle (song) – Wikipedia

1970 song by The Ides of March

Vehicle” is a song recorded by American rock band The Ides of March for their debut studio album of the same name (1970). The song was released as the lead single from the album in March 1970 through Warner Bros. Records. It was written by vocalist and frontman Jim Peterik about a girl that often used him for his mode of transportation, leading Peterik to surmise that he was little more than her “vehicle”. The song has a distinctive horn section riff, often mistaken for the band Blood, Sweat and Tears, who were also popular in that era.

“Vehicle” was a commercial success, and was purported to be the fastest-selling single in the history of Warner Bros. at that time. It peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US, while reaching the top five in Canada and top 30 in the United Kingdom. Despite this, the Ides of March never had another hit single, leaving them one-hit wonders.

Background[edit]

A Plymouth Valiant convertible from the early 1960s.

Peterik wrote “Vehicle” as a tongue-in-cheek joke, having been initially inspired by anti-drug pamphlets passed out to high-schoolers.[1] He expanded on the song’s genesis in a piece for The Wall Street Journal:

At the time, I was madly in love with this girl named Karen. I had a souped-up 1964 Plymouth Valiant, and she was always asking for rides. I drove her to modeling school every week. I was hoping flames would ignite—but they didn’t. I came home one day, dejected, and thought: all I am is her vehicle. And I thought: Wow! Vehicle! I came up with this song, taught it to the band, and the next thing I knew, we were recording in a CBS studio.[2]

Peterik had an on-again/off-again relationship with the woman after the song came out, but they eventually wed.[3]

Fourteen seconds of the completed “Vehicle” master tape (primarily the guitar solo) was accidentally erased in the recording studio. The missing section was spliced in from a previously discarded take.

I remember that kind of feeling of experimentation. I also remember 14 seconds of the master of “Vehicle” being erased! We were doing background vocals and suddenly 14 seconds were gone from the master. No way to retrieve it. The second engineer had hit the wrong button. We spent two hours thinking our career is over, because at this time we knew we had something. Luckily, there was a Take One. They inserted 14 seconds of Take One and I redid the vocals. And now I hear it every time. From the second “Great God in heaven” all the way up to the guitar solo—-when you hear how abrupt that first note of the solo sounds, that’s an edit.

Chart performance[edit]

It rose to number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart the week of May 23, 1970,[4] behind “American Woman” by the Guess

Automotive engineering – Wikipedia

Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. It also includes modification of vehicles. Manufacturing domain deals with the creation and assembling the whole parts of automobiles is also included in it. The automotive engineering field is research -intensive and involves direct application of mathematical models and formulas. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and test vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field.

Disciplines[edit]

Automobile engineering[edit]

Automobile engineering is a branch study of engineering which teaches manufacturing, designing, mechanical mechanisms as well operations of automobiles.
It is an introduction to vehicle engineering which deals with motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks, etc. It includes branch study of mechanical, electronic, software and safety elements.
Some of the engineering attributes and disciplines that are of importance to the automotive engineer and many of the other aspects are included in it:

Safety engineering: Safety engineering is the assessment of various crash scenarios and their impact on the vehicle occupants. These are tested against very stringent governmental regulations. Some of these requirements include: seat belt and air bag functionality testing, front and side impact testing, and tests of rollover resistance. Assessments are done with various methods and tools, including Computer crash simulation (typically finite element analysis), crash test dummy, and partial system sled and full vehicle crashes.

Visualization of how a car deforms in an asymmetrical crash using finite element analysis.[1]

Fuel economy/emissions: Fuel economy is the measured fuel efficiency of the vehicle in miles per gallon or kilometers per liter. Emissions testing includes the measurement of vehicle emissions, including hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and evaporative emissions.

NVH engineering (noise, vibration, and harshness): NVH is the customer’s feedback (both tactile [felt] and audible [heard]) from the vehicle. While sound can be interpreted as a rattle, squeal, or hot, a tactile response can be seat vibration or a buzz in the steering wheel. This feedback is generated by components either rubbing, vibrating, or rotating. NVH response can be classified in various ways: powertrain NVH, road noise, wind noise, component noise, and squeak and rattle. Note, there are both good and bad NVH qualities. The NVH engineer works to either eliminate bad NVH or change the “bad NVH” to good (i.e., exhaust tones).

Vehicle electronics: Automotive electronics is an increasingly important aspect of automotive engineering. Modern vehicles employ dozens of electronic systems.[1] These systems are responsible for operational controls such as the throttle, brake and steering controls; as well as many comfort and convenience systems such as the HVAC, infotainment, and lighting systems. It would not be possible for automobiles to meet modern safety and