## The Bicycle as a System

### Purpose

To explore the nature of systems by examining the systems that make a bicycle work. Students will begin to understand how the different systems of a bicycle relate to each other and be able to identify the properties of each part or subsystem.

### Context

This lesson gives students an opportunity to examine the nature of systems in the context of an object with which they are very familiar – the bicycle. While this lesson is intended for grades 6-8, it presents concepts that are more appropriate for 7th and 8th grade students.

The main goal of having students learn about systems is not to have them talk about systems in abstract terms, but to enhance their ability (and inclination) to identify the various aspects of systems in attempting to understand the whole system. Examining systems is really a way of thinking rather than theories or discoveries.

Students will identify the properties of the various subsystems of a bicycle and examine how they relate to the whole. According to research: “Children tend to think of the properties of a system as belonging to individual parts of it rather than as arising from the interaction of the parts. A system property that arises from interaction of parts is therefore a difficult idea.” (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, p. 262.)

Students should already know that if something consists of many parts, the parts usually influence one another. Also they should be aware that something may not work as well (or at all) if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected.

It is important to establish the boundary of the system to include enough parts so that their relationship to one another makes sense. Drawing the boundary of a system well can make the difference between understanding and not understanding what is going on. Thinking of everything within some boundary as being a system suggests the need to look for certain kinds of influence and behavior. For example, students should consider a system’s inputs and outputs-the outputs of some parts being inputs for others.

Systems are not mutually exclusive. Systems may be so closely related that there is no way to draw boundaries that separate all parts of one from all parts of the other. Any part of a system may itself be considered as a system-a subsystem-with its own internal parts and interactions. Any system is likely to be part of a larger system that it influences and that influences it. The idea of a system should be expanded to include connections among systems.

Students will also learn about the choices and constraints that go into the design of a bicycle system. Depending on whether the bicycle is intended for racing, mountain roads, or touring, influences its design and such choices as the type of tires, frame and materials, and drives and gears. In addition, accommodating one constraint can often lead to conflict with others. For example, the lightest material may not be the strongest, or

## Particle Announces New Tracking System to Support IoT Deployments in Transportation & Logistics, Cold Chain, and Micromobility

SAN FRANCISCO, April 29, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Particle, the edge-to-cloud IoT platform built to connect the unconnected, today announced its new Tracking System to provide organizations with the ability to track the locations of a wide variety of mobile assets with its powerful, configurable, extensible and field-ready solution. In a forthcoming study from Particle that surveyed over 1,000 IoT engineers and industry experts, Asset Tracking ranked as one of the top three most in-demand applications for IoT technology.

Built on the Particle platform spanning integrated Internet-of-Things (IoT) hardware, edge software, connectivity, and cloud-based management software, Particle’s Tracking System empowers customers to track the real-time location of critical assets and capture additional intelligence via sensor data including temperature and acceleration as well as remotely control mobile equipment and vehicles.

Asset Tracking operations are critical for both emerging and established industries, including supply chain & logistics providers, cold chain operations, micromobility businesses such as connected scooter & eBike vendors, transportation, and general purpose high-value capital asset tracking and monitoring. While conventional Asset Tracking and telematics tools have often historically focused on basic use cases such as collecting the location data of critical assets, next-generation capabilities powered by IoT technologies enable organizations to develop more sophisticated solutions to support industry-specific use cases:

• Transportation & logistics managers use real-time data and for comprehensive fleet management, to monitor the quality of goods in transit, and identify where organizations can save energy and resources
• Cold chain logistics providers need to ensure quality and compliance for at rest and in-transit goods ranging from food & beverage, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals
• Manufacturers and distributors of machines and equipment across a wide range of industries from construction to equipment rental firms must track the location of high-value capital assets to maximize asset utilization, prevent theft and loss, and monitor inventory
• Micromobility providers require not only basic capabilities to track scooters / e-bikes by location, but also need to remotely update the device to continually improve their product and address evolving compliance standards as well as monitor operational status, such as tracking whether a scooter’s headlights are on or off upon parking.

Particle’s Tracking System builds on the existing edge-to-cloud IoT platform with the following new offerings:

• Tracking Services is a suite of software purpose-built for asset tracking applications that extends Particle’s platform with geolocation services (mapping and geodatabase) and a configuration service for defining fleet-wide behaviors such as reporting interval on-the-fly. Tracker Services also includes an open firmware application framework for devices that integrates with off-the-shelf IoT sensors and can be deeply customized to support sophisticated tracker applications.
• Tracker SoM is a powerful, configurable, and extensible IoT System-on-Module (SoM) that builds on Particle’s Tracking Services foundation and provides a powerful MCU, GNSS, and advanced peripherals in a compact form factor. Tracker SoM serves as an accelerated starting point to organizations that require a tailored tracking solution for sophisticated applications as well as a fully-certified foundation for original equipment manufacturers developing commercial products.
• Tracker One is a field-ready Asset

## river, sea, oceans, important, largest, types, system, marine, human

Historically, societies have always located near water, due partly to the
fact that water enables more efficient travel compared to going over land.
Waterways are critically important to the transportation of people and
goods throughout the world. The complex network of connections between
coastal ports, inland ports, rail, air, and truck routes forms a
foundation of material economic wealth worldwide.

Within the United States, waterways have been developed and integrated
into a world-class transportation system that has been instrumental in the
country’s economic development. Today, there are more than 17,700
kilometers of commercially important navigation channels in the lower 48
states.

## Early History of Water-based Transportation

The historical development of water-based transportation is connected to
the importance of domestic and international trade. Early exploration of
North America identified large amounts of natural resources such as
fisheries, timber, and furs. Trade centers were established along the
east coast of North America where goods could be gathered together and
ocean vessels could transport them to consumers in Europe and other
foreign areas. The success of commercial trading companies spurred the
introduction of

Waterways in developing countries are critical avenues for local
and regional commerce. Fruit and vegetable vendors flock to floating
markets on rivers and canals, such as this one in Bangkok, Thailand.

more colonial settlements that in turn resulted in additional increases
in population, economic activity, and trade.

From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, small subsistence farms
were prevalent among the American colonies. Eventually larger farms
emerged and produced crops such as wheat, tobacco, rice, indigo, and
cotton that were commercially marketable in Europe. Ocean vessels
transported the bulk, low-value goods from the colonies to Europe and
returned with high-value, low-density goods such as inks, linens, and
finished products that had a much higher return on the investment per
vessel trip.

Agricultural production continued to grow and support the growing
colonies’ economic development. The speed and low cost of
transporting goods by water influenced the locations of population
settlements near navigable water (rivers, lakes, canals, and oceans).
Goods produced on inland farms were transported via inland waterways to
the coastal ports. Goods shipped by smaller vessels from surrounding
ports were transported to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and
exported on larger oceangoing ships. These ships from the smaller ports
then transported imported goods back to the surrounding ports.

During the 1700s, the British government passed many acts, such as the
Navigation Acts and the Stamp Act of 1765, designed to collect taxes
from the colonists. The acts affected trade, and were met with
opposition from the colonist. In Philadelphia during the fall of 1774,
the “Declarations and Resolves of the First Continental
Congress” called for non-importation of British goods, and became
a catalyst for the American Revolutionary War (1775–1784). The
resulting independence for the United States allowed trade a free rein,
and it flourished.

### Westward Expansion.

The westward expansion of the United States exposed a wealth of natural
resources and an increased production in agricultural goods. The inland
transportation infrastructure

## Automotive Intelligence Park Assist System Market Research Report – Forecast to 2023

1. Executive Summary

1.1. Market Attractiveness Analysis

1.1.1. Global Counter UAS Market, By Type

1.1.2. Global Counter UAS Market, By Platform

1.1.3. Global Counter UAS Market, By End-User

1.1.4. Global Counter UAS Market, By Region

2. Market Introduction

2.1. Market Definition

2.2. Scope of the Study

2.3. Market Structure

2.5. Market Factor Indicator Analysis

3. Research Methodology

3.1. Research Process

3.2. Primary Research

3.3. Secondary Research

3.4. Market Size Estimation

3.5. Forecast Model

3.6. List of Assumptions

4. Market Insights

5. Market Dynamics

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Drivers

5.3. Restraints

5.4. Opportunities

5.5. Challenges

5.6. Market/Technological Trends

5.7. Patent Trends

5.8. Regulatory Landscape/Standards

6. Market Factor Analysis

6.1. Value Chain/Supply Chain Analysis

6.1.1. R&D

6.1.2. Manufacturing

6.1.3. Distribution & Sales

6.1.4. Post-Sales Monitoring

6.2. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

6.2.1. Threat of New Entrants

6.2.3. Threat of Substitutes

6.2.4. Segment Rivalry

6.2.5. Bargaining Power of Supplies

7. Global Counter UAS Market, by Type

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Detection & Tracking Systems

7.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

7.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

7.2.2.2. RF Systems

7.2.2.3. EO-IR Systems

7.2.2.4. Acoustic Systems

7.2.2.5. Other Systems

7.3. Intercepting Systems

7.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

7.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

7.3.2.1. RF & GNSS Jamming Systems

7.3.2.2. GPS Spoofing Systems

7.3.2.3. Laser Systems

7.3.2.4. Nets & Projectiles

7.3.2.5. Other Systems

8. Global Counter UAS Market, by Platform

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Ground-Based

8.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

8.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

8.3. Hand-Held

8.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

8.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

8.4. UAV-Based

8.4.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

8.4.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

9. Global Counter UAS Market, by End-User

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Military

9.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

9.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

9.3. Civil

9.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, 2018–2023

9.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Region, 2018–2023

10. Global Counter UAS Market, by Region

10.1. Introduction

10.2. North America

10.2.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2018–2023

10.2.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2018–2023

10.2.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Platform, 2018–2023

10.2.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by End-User, 2018–2023

10.2.5. US

10.2.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2018–2023

10.2.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Platform, 2018–2023

10.2.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by End-User, 2018–2023

10.2.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2018–2023

10.2.6.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Platform, 2018–2023

10.2.6.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by End-User, 2018–2023

10.3. Europe

10.3.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Country, 2018–2023

10.3.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2018–2023

10.3.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Platform, 2018–2023

10.3.4. Market Estimates & Forecast, by End-User, 2018–2023

10.3.5. UK

10.3.5.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2018–2023

10.3.5.2. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Platform, 2018–2023

10.3.5.3. Market Estimates & Forecast, by End-User, 2018–2023

10.3.6. Germany

10.3.6.1. Market Estimates & Forecast, by Type, 2018–2023

## Automotive Battery Thermal Management System Market Research Report – Forecast to 2023

1 Executive Summary

2 Scope of the Report

2.1 Market Definition

2.2 Scope of the Study

2.2.1 Definition

2.2.2 Research Objective

2.2.3 Assumptions

2.2.4 Limitations

2.3 Research Process

2.3.1 Primary Research

2.3.2 Secondary Research

2.4 Market size Estimation

2.5 Forecast Model

3 Market Landscape

3.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

3.1.1 Threat of New Entrants

3.1.3 Threat of substitutes

3.1.4 Segment rivalry

3.2 Value Chain/Supply Chain Analysis

4 Market Dynamics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Market Drivers

4.3 Market Restraints

4.4 Market Opportunities

4.5 Market Trends

5 Global Automotive Battery Thermal Management System Market, By Technology

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Air

5.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

5.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

5.3 Liquid

5.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

5.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

5.4 Phase Change Material

5.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

5.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

5.4 Thermo electrics

5.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

5.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

6 Global Automotive Battery Thermal Management System Market, By Propulsion

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Battery Electric Vehicle

6.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

6.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

6.3 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

6.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

6.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

6.4 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

6.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

6.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

6.5 Fuel Cell Vehicle

6.5.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

6.5.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

7 Global Automotive Battery thermal management system Market, By Battery Capacity

7.1 Introduction

7.2 0 – 200 KWh

7.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

7.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

7.3 200 – 500 KWh

7.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

7.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

7.4 > 500 KWh

7.4.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

7.4.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

8 Global Automotive Battery Thermal Management System Market, By Vehicle Type

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Passenger

8.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

8.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

8.3 Commercial

8.3.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2017-2023

8.3.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Region, 2017-2023

9 Global Automotive Battery thermal management system Market, By Region

9.1 Introduction

9.2 America

9.2.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2019-2023

9.2.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Technology, 2019-2023

9.2.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Vehicle Type, 2019-2023

9.2.4 Market Estimates & Forecast by Battery capacity, 2019-2023

9.2.5 Market Estimates & Forecast by Vehicle Type, 2019-2023

9.2.6 U.S.

9.2.6.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2019-2023

9.2.6.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Technology, 2019-2023

9.2.6.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Propulsion, 2019-2023

9.2.6.4 Market Estimates & Forecast by Battery capacity, 2019-2023

9.2.6.5 Market Estimates & Forecast by Vehicle Type, 2019-2023

9.2.7.1 Market Estimates & Forecast, 2019-2023

9.2.7.2 Market Estimates & Forecast by Technology, 2019-2023

9.2.7.3 Market Estimates & Forecast by Propulsion, 2019-2023

9.2.7.4 Market Estimates & Forecast

## Automotive Anti-Lock Braking System Market

Global Automotive anti-lock braking system (ABS) Market Information Report By sub-systems (sensors, electronic control unit and hydraulic unit), by vehicle type (two wheelers, passenger cars and commercial vehicles) and by Region – Forecast To 2023

Market Synopsis:

Anti-lock braking systems are used to assist automotive for safe braking and easy steering in situations of wet or slippery road. The use of these systems in automotive prevents a person from slipping or skidding of a vehicle, and retains the control of steering after hard braking. The increase in demand of consumers for advanced safety features in the automobiles and the introduction of stringent safety laws & regulations by various transport authorities are driving the growth of anti-lock braking system.

Anti-lock braking system offers benefits such as the stable braking characteristics on all kinds of road surfaces, reduced tier wear and reduced braking distance. The rise in the number of on-road vehicles, increase in focus on vehicle safety and technological advancements, are expected to drive the growth of the market.

Leading automobile manufacturers are introducing anti-lock breaking system in both traditional and electric vehicles to the entry level vehicles, which is further expected to boost the growth of the market. The increase in number of auto collision, increased safety awareness, development of advance braking system for two wheelers and the improving technical advancements for ensuring the safety of the passengers and the automotive, also add to

## Covid-19 deals a long-term hit to New York City’s transportation system

Part of the problem: The MTA entered the coronavirus pandemic already saddled with financial challenges. When Cuomo signed off on the budget in January, the MTA still hadn’t finished \$15 billion in projects from earlier capital plans.

“There is…carryover work from the 2015-19 capital program where the contracts have yet to be awarded,” said Penner, who led the Federal Transit Administration’s New York office for 31 years. “They are legally bound to award those contracts.”

When you add in the old projects and the new ones, the MTA’s capital plan is closer to \$70 billion, said Andrew Rein of the Citizens Budget Commission.

These old projects take precedence over new plans, creating both headaches and confusion for city planners trying to set funding priorities.

Looming over everything is the debt the MTA holds.

The the transit administration pays a dollar in interest on its loans for every six dollars it takes in, said Danny Pearlstein of the Riders Alliance.

“They’re in a really fiscally significant challenging position,” Rein said. “They’re bleeding money on a daily basis.”

State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli said the MTA’s outstanding debt is projected to approach \$53 billion by 2023.

It also doesn’t help that the MTA depends heavily on the municipal bond market to finance its projects. Officials had hoped that \$25 billion in bond sales would provide its largest funding source for the capital budget. But as yields rise sharply, experts fear investors will abandon these bonds, and the MTA won’t be able to pay its obligations.

“A big part of what happens to the capital plan is what happens to bond yields,” said Nicole Gelinas, a senior fellow with the Manhattan Institute. “Do they have to pay slightly higher interest rates to access the market, and does that mean they need to pay more for the capital improvement plan?”

The MTA’s revenue projections for the 2020-24 capital improvement plan also depend on its operating budget—fares, tolls, real estate taxes, sales taxes, and city and state subsidies. But those are affected by the widespread disruption caused by the coronavirus and the uncertain timeline for when the economy will return to normal.

“They’re counting on \$3 billion in revenue, and it’s totally naive to believe this is going to happen,” Penner said.

MTA officials also counted on an additional \$15 billion from Cuomo’s controversial congestion pricing legislation. The significant decline in New York City traffic since the outbreak of the coronavirus, with no clear indication of when typical traffic patterns will resume, present a clear threat to the project.

What’s more, the congestion pricing plan has yet to gain federal approval by the Department of Transportation, primarily because of the Trump administration’s concerns over the plan’s environmental impact.

“A lot of questions are up in the air,” said Gelinas, noting the future tax base of the city and the willingness of individuals and businesses to shoulder a novel congestion charge are unknowns.

When asked at a March 25 press conference which specific programs in the capital

## U.S. Bicycle Route System (USBRS)

The U.S. Bicycle Route System (USBRS) is a developing national network of bicycle routes connecting urban and rural communities via signed roads and trails. Created with public input, U.S. Bicycle Routes direct bicyclists to a preferred route through a city, county, or state – creating opportunities for people everywhere to bicycle for travel, transportation, and recreation.

Over 14,000 miles are currently established in 27 states and Washington DC – and many routes are signed.

Since 2005, Adventure Cycling has been proud to shepherd the growth of the USBRS. We provide free technical assistance, coordination, and resources to assist stakeholder groups in their designation efforts.

Together, we’re building the largest public bike route network in the world!

July 22, 2019
What’s the Story with Kansas?

The story of our safety work in Kansas starts in a dark place, but some of the most important work can also be the hardest.

April 30, 2019
5 Fun Facts about the USBRS

Did you know the U.S. Bicycle Route System will be the largest bike route network in the world when it’s complete? Here are five other things you may not know about the USBRS.

May 22, 2018
Exploring USBR 21 in Georgia

Looking for bike trails and routes near you? The U.S. Bicycle Route System connects unique bike travel experiences across the country, like the Brushy Mountain Tunnel and the Silver Comet Trail on U.S. Bicycle Route 21 (USBR 21). Donate today.

August 14, 2019
Woodbury County, Iowa pledges support for USBR 55

Communities in Iowa are starting to rally behind the state’s first U.S. Bicycle Route.

July 10, 2019
Lancaster, CA is latest city to sign on to USBR 85

The Lancaster City Council unanimously supported the designation of U.S. Bicycle Route 85 through California, and plans to improve the bike lanes which the route follows.

January 14, 2019
Indiana closing in on USBR 235

U.S. Bicycle Route 235 will connect Indianapolis to Seymour, Indiana.

December 26, 2018
Arcata joins the effort to designate USBR 95 in California

With the city of Arcata signing on to designate U.S. Bicycle Route 95 along the California coast, nearly half of all jurisdictions have indicated support for this iconic route!

September 13, 2018
Cave Country Trails finalizes plans for U.S. Bicycle Route 23 in Kentucky

“Cave Country Trails believes getting a U.S. bike route would lure more adventure tourists to the area.” The group finalized work on the 110-mile U.S. Bicycle Route 23 in Kentucky, which now awaits official approval from AASHTO.

July 16, 2018
CityLab takes a look at USBR 66

U.S. Bicycle Route 66 is breathing life back into small communities along the “Mother Road.” CityLab takes a look at what the designation means for Missouri and Kansas, and the effort to connect the route across the country.

July 13, 2018
Lorain County, OH wants on national bike map

In Lorain County, Ohio, community members see their connection to the U.S. Bicycle Route System as a way to highlight all the cycling opportunities

## The Function Of A Energy Amplifier In A Automobile Audio System

If you’re looking for really low-cost used automobiles on the market, you will have a lot increased success in taking a look at repossessed and impounded vehicle sales or auctions. Thats it, do not waste your time driving round getting multiple estimates because in the end your insurance coverage company is simply going to make use of those estimates as a place to begin and write their own anyway. In fact, you probably have the budget to get a new (or good used) vehicle, then some options come up. Vans are a confirmed vehicle for service people of every kind.

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## Can I Use “Stop Leak” For My Vehicle’s AC System?

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