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History of the bicycle – Wikipedia

1886 Swift Safety Bicycle

Vehicles for human transport that have two wheels and require balancing by the rider date back to the early 19th century. The first means of transport making use of two wheels arranged consecutively, and thus the archetype of the bicycle, was the German draisine dating back to 1817. The term bicycle was coined in France in the 1860s, and the descriptive title “penny farthing”, used to describe an “Ordinary Bicycle”, is a 19th-century term.

Earliest unverified bicycle[edit]

There are several early, but unverified claims for the invention of the bicycle.

A sketch from around 1500 AD is attributed to Gian Giacomo Caprotti, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, but it was described by Hans-Erhard Lessing in 1998 as a purposeful fraud.[1][2] However, the authenticity of the bicycle sketch is still vigorously maintained by followers of Prof. Augusto Marinoni, a lexicographer and philologist, who was entrusted by the Commissione Vinciana of Rome with the transcription of Leonardo’s Codex Atlanticus.[3][4]

Later, and equally unverified, is the contention that a certain “Comte de Sivrac” developed a célérifère in 1792, demonstrating it at the Palais-Royal in France. The célérifère supposedly had two wheels set on a rigid wooden frame and no steering, directional control being limited to that attainable by leaning.[5] A rider was said to have sat astride the machine and pushed it along using alternate feet. It is now thought that the two-wheeled célérifère never existed (though there were four-wheelers) and it was instead a misinterpretation by the well-known French journalist Louis Baudry de Saunier in 1891.[6][7]

19th century[edit]

1817 to 1819: the draisine or velocipede[edit]

Wooden draisine (around 1820), the earliest two-wheeler
Drais’ 1817 design made to measure

The first verifiable claim for a practically used bicycle belongs to German Baron Karl von Drais, a civil servant to the Grand Duke of Baden in Germany. Drais invented his Laufmaschine (German for “running machine”) in 1817, that was called Draisine (English) or draisienne (French) by the press. Karl von Drais patented this design in 1818, which was the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine, commonly called a velocipede, and nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse.[8] It was initially manufactured in Germany and France.

Hans-Erhard Lessing (Drais’ biographer) found from circumstantial evidence that Drais’ interest in finding an alternative to the horse was the starvation and death of horses caused by crop failure in 1816, the Year Without a Summer (following the volcanic eruption of Tambora in 1815).[9]

On his first reported ride from Mannheim on June 12, 1817, he covered 13 km (eight miles) in less than an hour.[10] Constructed almost entirely of wood, the draisine weighed 22 kg (48 pounds), had brass bushings within the wheel bearings, iron shod wheels, a rear-wheel brake and 152 mm

The Best Auto Locksmiths Near Me (with Free Estimates)

There are several reasons you may need a car locksmith. You may be locked out of your car (either with the keys inside or with no keys at all), you may have lost your car keys and need a new key, or you may want to make a duplicate car key. The national average locksmith price ranges from $70 to $100. Getting locked out of your car can be scary and overwhelming — especially if it’s cold and dark out. Fortunately, professional locksmiths provide round-the-clock assistance to help people in these circumstances.

Car lockouts are one of the main reasons people need a locksmith. Your locksmith’s price can depend on the type of car you have, the time of day (or night) it is, and where you are located. Locksmith pricing may be based on a flat rate, or pricing may be quoted to you after the locksmith determines the circumstances. For example, a flat rate for a car lockout could be $65 for standard vehicles. That price could be higher for after-hours or long-distance service, or service during extreme weather. If you have entirely lost your car keys, a locksmith can make you a new car key, but first they must verify that you are the owner of the car. Locksmiths can even program new car key fobs for you — often at a lower price than a dealership.

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definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary

These are words often used in combination with transportation. Click on a collocation to see more examples of it.

Click on a collocation to see more examples of it.

alternative transportation

Using alternative transportation is encouraged.

From

Wikipedia

This example is from Wikipedia and may be reused under a CC BY-SA license.

form of transportation

Trustworthiness of the engineers was also paramount in attempts to establish railway locomotives as a safe, reliable, and cheap form of transportation.

These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

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Get Used Car Pricing at KBB.com

When buying a used car, it’s usually hard to know what a fair price is.
You have to consider not just the type of vehicle, but the vehicle
condition, mileage and options.Good thing Kelley Blue Book has over 90
years of experience with used car pricing and we’ve done the analysis
for you.If you’re buying a used car at a dealership, start with the
Typical Listing Price.It gives you an idea of the asking prices you
might see on dealer’s lot. For what you might actually pay for that used
car, use the Kelley Blue Book® Fair Market Range as a guide. It’ll show
you what you can reasonably expect to pay this week in your area for a
used vehicle with the options and mileage you want. It’s based on data
from real transactions, plus market conditions and vast industry
knowledge. If you’re buying the car from an individual instead of a
dealership, look at the Kelley Blue Book® Private Party Value. It’s the
starting point for negotiation of a used car sale between a private
buyer and seller. It tends to be a little lower than the used car Fair
Purchase Price because a private party doesn’t have all the costs
associated with running a dealership. And even if you don’t know exactly
what used car you want, KBB.com helps you find used car pricing and more
on vehicles in popular categories like sedans, SUVs and trucks.

What’s the difference between a used car and a CPO Car?

Certified Pre-Owned (CPO) Cars are essentially top-quality, inspected
used cars backed by manufacturer’s warranties.

Typically, they

  • Are less than 5 years old
  • Have fewer than 100,000 miles
  • Have been thoroughly inspected by factory-trained technicians
  • Include an additional warranty
  • Qualify for new car loan rates
  • Often include additional perks like roadside assistance

For a non-certified used car, what you see is what you get, but at least you can rely on the Kelley Blue Book® Fair Market Range to know what you should pay!


Is age or mileage more important when buying a used car?

Most people think that a low-mileage car is the better deal, even if
it’s 5-10 years old. But, unfortunately, that’s not necessarily true. It
really comes down to how the vehicle has been maintained and treated
over its life.

An older vehicle with low mileage has parts that may’ve rusted or
deteriorated over time, especially rubber components like hoses, seals
and tires. On the other hand, a higher mileage newer vehicle (which is
more likely to have newer comforts and technology) can still be in great
condition if all the maintenance like oil changes and tune-ups have been
done religiously.

Here are a few things you can do to give you more context on a specific vehicle:

  • Research the model’s history. Check to see if there are repetitive problems, such as serious (and expensive) issues with the transmission or engine.
  • Know the car’s history. Ask the dealer or owner to show you a vehicle history report

bicycle | Definition, History, Types, & Facts

Bicycle predecessors

Historians disagree about the invention of the bicycle, and many dates are challenged. It is most likely that no individual qualifies as the inventor and that the bicycle evolved through the efforts of many. Although Leonardo da Vinci was credited with having sketched a bicycle in 1492 in his Codex Atlanticus, the drawing was discovered to be a forgery added in the 1960s. Another presumed bicycle ancestor, the vélocifère, or célérifère, of the 1790s was a fast horse-drawn coach that is not considered to be a predecessor of the bicycle.


Draisiennes, hobby-horses, and other velocipedes

The first two-wheeled rider-propelled machine for which there is indisputable evidence was the draisienne, invented by Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun of Germany. In 1817 he rode it for 14 km (9 miles), and the following year he exhibited it in Paris. Although von Drais called his device a Laufmaschine (“running machine”), draisienne and velocipede became more popular names. The machine was made of wood, and the seated rider propelled himself by paddling his feet against the ground. A balance board supported the rider’s arms. Although von Drais was granted patents, copies were soon being produced in other countries, including Great Britain, Austria, Italy, and the United States.

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Denis Johnson of London purchased a draisienne and patented an improved model in 1818 as the “pedestrian curricle.” The following year he produced more than 300, and they became commonly known as hobby-horses. They were very expensive, and many buyers were members of the nobility. Caricaturists called the devices “dandy horses,” and riders were sometimes jeered in public. The design raised health concerns, and riding proved impractical except on smooth roads. Johnson’s production ended after only six months. The brief draisienne–hobby-horse fad did not lead to sustained development of two-wheeled vehicles, but von Drais and Johnson established that the machines could remain balanced while in motion. For the next 40 years, most experimenters focused on human-powered three- and four-wheeled velocipedes.

Treadles and pedals: powered velocipedes

There is evidence that a small number of two-wheeled machines with rear treadle drives were built in southwestern Scotland during the early 1840s. Kirkpatrick Macmillan, a blacksmith of Dumfriesshire, is most often associated with these. He is said to have traveled 40 miles (64 km) to Glasgow in 1842, although documentation is problematic. Gavin Dalzell of Lesmahagow probably built a similar two-wheeled machine in the mid-1840s and is said to have operated it for many years. This may be the heavily restored machine in the Glasgow Museum of Transport. It has wooden wheels and iron rims. The rider’s feet swung treadles back and forth, moving a pair of rods connected to cranks on the rear wheels. Thomas McCall, another Scotsman, built similar machines in the late 1860s. Documents indicate that Alexandre Lefèbvre of Saint-Denis, France, built a two-wheeled velocipede powered by treadles connected to cranks on the rear wheel

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Car Batteries, Truck Batteries, Auto Batteries

All products sold on AdvanceAutoParts.com are covered by warranty. Terms and length vary by product. Check individual product pages for the warranty length applicable to each product. Please see below for the full text of our warranty policies.

General Warranty Policy

Advance Auto Parts Limited Warranty – applies to all products not covered by one of the below warranties.

Warranties For Specific Products

Product Warranty Questions

Please contact Customer Care for any warranty questions.

Engine and Transmission Warranty Claims

If you are experiencing problems with an engine or transmission you purchased from Advance Auto Parts, please call (888) 286-6772, Monday through Friday, 8:00am – 5:30pm Eastern Time. For all other products, please contact Customer Care.

Filters and Manufacturer’s Warranties

Consumer purchasers of automotive filters are sometimes told by an automobile dealer-s service writer or mechanic that a brand of replacement filter cannot be used in the consumer-s vehicle during the warranty period. The claim is made that use of the brand will “void the warranty,” with the statement or implication that only the original equipment brand of filters may be used. This, of course, tends to cast doubt on the quality of the replacement filter.

That claim is simply not true. If the consumer asks for the statement in writing, he will not receive it. Nevertheless, the consumer may feel uneasy about using replacement filters that are not original equipment. With the large number of do-it-yourselfers who prefer to install their own filters, this misleading claim should be corrected.

Under the Magnuson – Moss Warranty Act, 15U.S.C. SS 2301-2312 (1982) and general principles of the Federal Trade Commission Act, a manufacturer may not require the use of any brand of filter (or any other article) unless the manufacturer provides the item free of charge under the terms of the warranty.

So, if the consumer is told that only the original equipment filter will not void the warranty, he should request that the OE filter be supplied free of charge. If he is charged for the filter, the manufacturer will be violating the Magnuson – Moss Warranty Act and other applicable law.

By providing this information to consumers, the Filter Manufacturers Council can help to combat the erroneous claim that a brand of replacement filter other than the original equipment will “void the warranty.”

It should be noted that the Magnuson – Moss Warranty Act is a federal law that applies to consumer products. The Federal Trade Commission has authority to enforce the Magnuson – Moss Warranty Act, including obtaining injunctions and orders containing affirmative relief. In addition, a consumer can bring suit under the Magnuson – Moss Warranty Act.

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Transport – Wikipedia

Human-directed movement of things or people between locations

French National Police use several modes of transport, each with its distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A (a place in space) to a point B. Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.

Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations, including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.

Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, helicopters, watercraft, spacecraft and aircraft.

Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose, including financing, legalities, and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.

Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, or private. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is heavily subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl.

History[edit]

Humans’ first means of transport involved walking, running and swimming. The domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.

The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses (domesticated in the 4th or the 3rd millennium BCE), oxen (from about 8000 BCE)[1]
or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry. The medieval Caliphate later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were

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